Concept Mapping an Unconfined System

Our quarter three studio class continues with the research we did last quarter around post-traditional students. Due to some internal class changes, I have moved groups to join Kim Nguyen and Aaron Steinman, who are focusing on working students. While the focus statement and characteristics of the participants have shifted, my research with prospective students is still relevant as there is a lot of overlap in personal struggles, influences, and student goals.

Concept Mapping

This week we were asked to create a concept map in our domain of interest in order to reframe our understanding of the college system and how the people to who we spoke fit into it. This is a different exercise from my previous concept map mapping a financial banking app because that was a bounded system with a limited number of pathways and affordances. When approaching this assignment, it was difficult to know what terms to use in the map and to figure out a clear way to connect them to show their relationship to each other and to the whole.

Where to Start

I began by going back to my data from quarter two and creating a list of terms from the most prominent concepts in my themes and insights. I then connected them and described their relationships, but my initial map was a mess.

First iteration of concept map
First iteration of concept map

The guiding theme of the map was “Reflection,” as that has been an interesting concept to me while theming and developing insights. The fact that persisting through college requires people to constantly be weighing options and navigating personal and scholastic obstacles necessitates the ability to reflect on students’ actions and ideas. The data shows the students with the strongest ability to reflect generally had more robust plans for navigating future potential obstacles.  However, I do not think this map *ahem*  reflects those findings.


I tried sketching different layouts to optimize for readability and aesthetics, but I struggled with having the diagram come together to make my broader point. I used printouts of the terms and moved them around on a table in various groupings until I thought I had something workable, which I recreated in Sketch.

Final iteration of concept map
Final iteration of concept map

While this is my most recent iteration, I’m still not satisfied that the map goes deep enough to show what I know about this space in an interesting and provocative way. Perhaps some feedback in class today can push another iteration closer to the mark before I begin the next phase of applying semantic and temporal zooms.

Concept Mapping: Redesigning a Mobile Banking App

Designing Digital Interfaces

Quarter three has begun in earnest with a big shift towards learning about the later phases in the design process. The class Designing Digital Interfaces with designer Chrissy Cowdrey will challenge us to comprehend existing digital infrastructures, and build out redesigns through sketching, building wireframes, presenting and eliciting feedback. Since most design solutions will have some digital touchpoint, learning how user interface components and controls function to support interactions and design goals is critical.

Building on what we learned in quarter two in our Designing Systems class, the first assignment for Designing Digital Interfaces is to create a concept map of the existing navigation and information architecture for a mobile banking application and then rearrange the elements to optimize for usability.

Concept Mapping: Current State

The first step to redesigning a digital system is to capture its current state. I chose to map the Bank of America app, beginning with exploring and writing down terms of key elements. I then drafted a diagram by hand and recreated it in Sketch.

Below is my current state map.

Concept map of current Bank of America app
Concept map of current Bank of America app

There are three tiers of importance for each component represented by circle size. Larger circles are more important elements than smaller circles. The lines and arrows represent how elements are related by indicating the flow of access to one another.

Concept Mapping: Designing the Future State

Next, I considered elements that seemed awkwardly placed or perhaps did not belong at all. I shifted elements around in order to simplify interactions or make them more intuitive to optimize usability.

Below is my future state map.

Concept map of redesign for Bank of America app
Concept map of redesign for Bank of America app

In the current app design, Bank of America has a “My Dashboard” link that seems redundant in some ways, and hides other features. My redesign proposes putting those features in the Accounts section with an option to customize what is displayed, and doing away with “My Dashboard” altogether.

Furthermore, there is a catch-all area in the current state called “menu,” which leads to one’s profile, some personal settings, support options and features that also appear elsewhere, such as checking one’s FICO score. This term confounds the user as to where it might lead, essentially hiding those options. In the future state, I have simply renamed this button “Profile” to make it more clear. Considering several essential components are already visible in the top level navigation and the term “menu” could mean any number of things, using “profile” to describe this section will not only indicate that this is where users can find profile information, but will also make those extra features and support section more discoverable as users are more likely to click on a button they understand to be valuable to them.


Ultimately, these the changes in the future state are not a great departure from the current one, but they do simplify and clarify existing navigation to increase usability. Every change that decreases the cognitive load on the user contributes to an easier and more pleasurable digital experience.

Service Design at Buzz Mill

We are wrapping up our second quarter and that means finalizing our team service design projects. Through our research process Sara Miller, Shelly Stallings, and I have identified opportunity areas for our client, the Buzz Mill in Austin, and have design recommendations that will help them to achieve their goals.

Our team had created a website to document our research process, which we invite you to explore.

Buzz Mill Coffee Shop in Austin
Buzz Mill Coffee Shop in Austin

Educational Decision-Making: How Prospective Students Decide a Career Path

What We Are Hearing

Making decisions about education can be a daunting and on-going process. As we hear more stories from prospective students who are trying to figure out what they will choose for their major and career paths, we have begun to notice patterns in what tips the scale form one decision to the next.

Patterns in the Stories

Oftentimes, there is a strong feeling motivating people to do a specific type of work, such as caregiving, while points of inspiration can come from trying something once, or seeing it on a dramatized television series. When it finally comes time to choose a definite career path, choices are often limited to the list of majors a school offers.

Concept Model

How prospective students decide their career path
How prospective students decide their career path


This concept model visualizes how the internal processing and external circumstances work to shape a prospective student’s ideas about what career path he or she should work towards. 


Class Research: Notes from the Field

What we’ve been up to

Quarter two started up with a new research project for the class. This is a check-in to exhibit what we’ve all been doing for the past five weeks. Our findings will become the foundation of our cohort’s capstone project, which we will develop in quarters three and four through ideation and building a design prototype that will, hopefully, address some aspects of a wicked problem.

The Project

In partnership with PelotonU, AC4D has set out to conduct research into the broad topic of College Persistence and Completion. College completion rates have stagnated or fallen in recent years in the United States. The most at-risk students who start and fail to complete a degree are considered “nontraditional” students. While there is some disagreement in the academic community about the exact definition of a nontraditional student, some major indicators include either they are over 25 years of age, financially responsible for themselves and/or others, or working at least part-time. It is generally recognized however, that most students in the US have  one or more of these characteristics.

After reading secondary literature around how nontraditional students have become the norm while most colleges and universities are not structured to accommodate their needs, our class split off into six groups in order to pursue more refined focus areas.  

Focus areas

  • How college completion advisors and organizations equip themselves to deal with the obstacles non-traditional students face
  • How having to work part or full-time impacts a non-traditional students’ post-secondary educational experience
  • How people who have dropped out of college cope with moments of struggle and who is there to support them as they find their footing
  • How impostor syndrome impacts women’s post-secondary educational trajectory, from cultural background to employment
  • How prospective post-traditional students make educational decisions
  • How first-generation Americans in Austin perceive the role and importance of post-secondary education

Stories from the Field

The most critical part of design research is immersing ourselves in the lives of the people we seek to understand. AC4D uses the methods of contextual inquiry (observing people in their context as they experience something) and participatory design (using an activity to get at deeper feelings and thoughts). Below are a few compelling stories that have informed our themes and represent the array of humans who have opened up to us so far.


Above Photo: Peter explains dropping out of college and beginning his freelancing career
Above Photo: Peter explains dropping out of college and beginning his freelancing career

Peter dropped out of college just last February. Ultimately, he decided to drop out of school and begin freelancing as a developer because he already had the work experience and believed that he could learn more working at jobs than in the classroom.


Ophelia was an intern at her company when, based on the work she’d been doing for the company for two months, she was approached to fill an opening left by a more senior employee. However, Ophelia had little confidence in herself that she could do the job. She said:

“Since the experienced guy had been there for like 10 years, I assumed he wanted multiple people because I’m not to that level, obviously. I can’t take on a role like that.”


Above Photo: Chelsea describes her decision-making process and motivation for applying to colleges
Above Photo: Chelsea describes her decision-making process and motivation for applying to colleges

Chelsea is a video game designer and a recent graduate of St. Edward’s University. Her father immigrated from Mexico as a young man. She says her family was apathetic-to-positive about education, but placed a high premium on being close together. Chelsea felt faced with a choice: Run away, and risk family censure, or get a college education as a painful but “acceptable” reason for leaving home.

“I don’t want to live at home anymore. I hate living at home. And that’s where I started with college. I did research and found a whole list of colleges. And I applied to every single one.”

Initial Findings

While we are still in the thick of our research, including recruitment of participants and externalizing our data, some broad themes and insights are beginning to emerge, connecting many of the stories we’ve gathered.

  • Effective Advising is Intrusive Advising: Advisors don’t wait to be asked for help. They get on planes, take road trips, and knock on dorm rooms. An advisor can be the bridge that helps a student who’s suddenly living amongst a wealthier, more privileged culture, or simply the common situation of not knowing how to ask for help on campus.
  • Emotions and stress levels can be an obstacle or motivation. A common theme we are seeing is a positive support structure can help shape the strong feelings and stresses into a motivation. There is a sense of, “if I go UP (not down), I’m taking everyone I love with me.”
  • People believe that jobs in the technology field prioritize your work experience over a college degree. If students feel that they will not learn anything from their classes, they disengage and don’t see the point in even attending.
  • Feelings of self-doubt and impostor syndrome around higher education and employment influence decision-making and can result in missed opportunities. Feelings of impostor syndrome affect most people at some point, but after speaking to subject matter experts we learned that due to both cultural and systemic reasons, women tend to have fewer tools for overcoming or dealing with these feelings when they occur.
  • Factors that influence decisions about post-secondary education start to cement in high school. We had the assumption from the start of our research that family, culture, and community values would play a large role in shaping a student’s plans for their future. What’s been a surprise to us is that two other factors have come to light as contributing variables – the role of extracurricular activities, and the role of geographic location.

What to look for next

Our plates are full these next few weeks as we finish up with contextual inquiries and continue to synthesize our field research. Mark your calendars to join us at Austin Center for Design on Sunday, December 16 to hear initial findings from our field research synthesis! Click here to learn more.

Service Design at Buzz Mill: Framing the Problem

As we move through November, our service design project at Buzz Mill Coffee House is beginning to bear fruit. Today we presented our insights and problem statement to the business, which showed how we are framing and narrowing the focus of our efforts.


In the design process, insights are the phase where bigger discoveries from the data are made and things start to get exciting. Insights are built on the products of our synthesis phase, which included themes, service slices, concept models, and other artifacts that helped us sift through our data and find interesting behaviors and feelings. Insights take those findings, ask why they might be happening, then use abductive reasoning to answer those questions. The results are often surprising and can reveal underlying motivations and fundamental human truths.

From the data we initially gathered at Buzz Mill and the products of our synthesis, we began to form insights that went in several directions. Since it is impossible to address every issue, we had to narrow down our problem space and decide on where we would put our focus. The most compelling insights seemed to point towards how people experience Buzz Mill as a coffee shop or bar, and thus miss a large part of the value Buzz Mill offers through social activities and opportunities for connecting to nature.

Experience Narrative

In our presentation, we decided to show the experience of the average patron at Buzz Mill. When looking at our themes, we noticed that there was a very clear narrative of how most folks experience Buzz Mill.

From the moment someone walks into the space, there is a clear sense of the camp aesthetic of the decor. There are rustic picnic tables outside, a fence made of tree limbs, a wood pile, and the outside of the physical building resembles a log cabin. Aligned with the vision for the space of it to be a community center, there is a large sign at the entrance welcoming folks to the “Neigborwoods” and a calendar below letting you know of the events there that week.

Front porch of Buzz Mill
Front porch of Buzz Mill

Quickly your attention shifts to the main product of Buzz Mill: its beer and alcohol. Directly next to the front door there is a wooden plaque acknowledging the feat that Buzz Mill has attained in being within the top volume sellers of Pabst Blue Ribbon in the country for three straight years. When you step inside, you immediately notice interesting, rustic looking signage letting you know about their coffee drinks and various cocktails.

Front door of Buzz Mill shows off PBR awards
Front door of Buzz Mill shows off PBR awards

Conversation with the staff begins around the topic of ordering. While waiting for a drink, your attention is directed to the infused alcohols which are flanked with lights highlighting their place behind the bar. Your interaction with staff is a noticeably pleasant transaction. You may notice a sign or two alluding the to larger social mission of the place (possibly the sign on the jar of dog treats mentioning that they cost a dollar which will be donated to charity or a rotating image on the television screen letting you know about an upcoming volunteer event). But it is quite likely you will miss these signs altogether.

Cafe signs
Cafe signs

Outside again, you notice a space conducive to social gatherings with its large tables and stage. If there is not an event going on, most likely you will sit down and notice some others around you enjoying a beer, smoking a cigarette or working on their computer. If there is a Lumber Society (their wilderness survival education club) event going on, you may learn how to make a really neat knife but never be communicated the larger purpose of the collective events to prepare you to go camping.

Buzz Mill

Current Situation

The journey described above shows how people currently experience Buzz Mill. Buzz Mill is viewed as a bar and coffee shop, so people often fail to see opportunities to participate in social activities or to connect with nature. We propose that Buzz Mill should seek to inspire the experience it intends for its patrons to have.

After presenting our insights and problem statement to management at Buzz Mill, the response was warm and engaged. Buzz Mill is looking to open another location in Austin, just up the road from AC4D, and they asked us what the ideal experience at Buzz Mill would be like. This is a great opportunity to inform how the new location may feel and the kinds of interactions that could occur there.

It is just four short weeks until we give the business our final presentation, which will consist of design criteria and recommendations.

Where we go next
Where we go next

Theory: The Thinking Behind Design

Our overarching theme in our theory class this section is How designers think.

What is Design Thinking?

This section most pointedly gets at the question “what is design thinking?” One cannot define design thinking without some clarity on what design actually is and when it is used. Only, I get the sense that the word “design” is broad and encompasses ideas that I have not yet discovered or fully understand, and which may, at times, conflict with one another. Not coming from a design background myself, my understanding of what design is throughout this first quarter has been fuzzy, inarticulate, and changing. Design thinking seems to me to be both a methodology (a practice), as well as an intellectual approach.

One discussion in class around the terms “design” and “design thinking” surfaced assumptions that design limits an outcome around a particular product or other design space, whereas design thinking provides an outcome that could be wider in scope or creativity. I believe most people would associate “design” with products and services, particularly in the realm of technology because that is where most people as consumers currently come in contact with design. These two terms are often used interchangeably, so they can both mean the same thing. Noting my assumptions helped me to understand my own expectations, as well as what a client’s could be, which will be critical to know when trying to explain the design process and value.

Below is a short story that explores different views of design thinking. It is of a fictional design sprint that results in a real design product. I have used white board drawings as I will attempt to present this story in a live drawing presentation.

Design Sprint: Immigration


  1. Set scene: Design Sprint with a focus on immigration


  1. An immigrant family is invited to speak. The parents are undocumented and the child is a US citizen.


  1. They explain how U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (I.C.E.) regularly raids neighborhoods, how it terrifies them, and how they do not know what to do when it happens.


  1. The family leaves and the team of designers get to work on the design sprint.
  2. They start by discussing what they heard about the problem space.
  3. The designer group considers the multitude of diverse stakeholders in this social issue, and recognizes the repercussions that are brought on them with every change and choice means that goal formation, problem definition, and equity issues are all in tension with no way to satisfactorily address them all for everyone.  This makes all planning and policy problems wicked problems. (Rittel and Webber)
  4. They must be solution-focused because it would take too long to research the problem and it would be impossible to gather a deep amount of data before the problem shifts due to policy or other external changes to the context. (Nigel Cross)
  5. They agree that the problem is ill structured as it is complex an unable to be defined. They consider using a powerful computer to try and help them, but since they cannot figure out a way to structure the problem, they agree that a computer would be ineffective. (Simon)
  6. One designer poses that they will be working in a spaces of inspiration, ideation, implementation and will not be following a series of steps, but rather working within this system of spaces. (Brown + Wyatt)
  7. One designer proposes looking at the problem with rigorous creativity by using creative techniques of provocation. He suggests a random word game. (de Bono)
  8. One designer suggests that if the family knew design, they could do this for themselves. He believes that design should be taught universally as a  foundational skill in school because it would empower people to solve their own problems effectively. (Pacione)
  9. Another designer answers that, while a useful skill, design needs more time to mature, more time to be discussed and argued over, more time for basic principles to become accepted as if they were never in dispute. It’s happening. The best thing we can do is contribute to the discussion.
  10. One designer posits Design thinking should progress to a new liberal art of technological culture.
  11. Another designer answers that she believes this to be already occurring as a function of board economic shifts. Easier than being adopted in primary or secondary school, the demand for more designers
  12. Designers complete the prototype and test it.


  1. They have created a red card that explains the individual’s rights in their native language in the event of an I.C.E. official knocking on their door.


  1. On the other side of the card, is an explanation in English that the individual is exercising his or her right not to open the door or speak with the I.C.E agent.


All people in the United States, regardless of immigration status, have certain rights and protections under the U.S. Constitution. The ILRC’s Red Cards help people assert their rights in many situations, such as when ICE agents go to a home.

I actually attended the design sprint in this story. However, I only heard about the Red Card, which is a real product. Hearing the story of how it was designed to assist people in the was a personal turning point for me when I realized I could learn about design and apply it to complex immigration issues. It was a powerful moment that was a source of inspiration when I decided to apply to AC4D.

Understanding design thinking is critical to me as a design student because design is first and foremost an intellectual approach. The products and services I will make, while based on reference-able research, will be just as much an extension of my thinking. Design can be a powerful tool to affect behavioral change, but that is only if it us used properly. Furthermore, any design solution I implement with cause all sorts of consequences, some intended (if it works), and many unintended. I will, have to take responsibility for all of them, as every solution will begin with my thoughts.

Reading list

Richard Buchanan: Wicked Problems in Design Thinking

Herbert Simon: the Structure of Ill-Structured Problems

Chris Pacione: Evolution of the Mind: A case for design Literacy

Edward de Bono: Serious Creativity

Nigel Cross: Discovering design Ability

Horst Rittel and Melvin Webber: Dilemmas in General Theory

Tim Brown and Jocelyn Wyatt: Design Thinking for Social innovation

Buzz Mill Themes: The Patterns Within

Research Team: Shelly, Sara, Kay

It’s been seven weeks since our team first connected with Buzz Mill Coffee Shop, a social initiative cum cafe-bar, in Austin and kicked off our service design research project. As we dive deeper into our data and discuss details around what people are experiencing and how Buzz Mill is trying to influence both patrons and staff, we are beginning to form a mental model of the business and uncover hidden social patterns.


Theming is the process by which we examine all of the audio data to discover latent patterns of feelings or behavior. This requires a level of inference, or using our own reasoning to build a little on the idea being expressed. Theming has been particularly helpful for us to sift through the data and discover deeper meaning behind all those words we captured during our interviews.

After typing out each participant interview, the team separated each discreet thought out and pinned all of them to our walls. It looked something like this:

A wall of utterances ready to be themed
A wall of utterances ready to be themed

Next, we took an interesting utterance and tried to find another one that seemed to show similar ideas of behaviors or feelings, while trying to avoid just matching categories. This exercise helped us to develop “themes” in the data, which slowly grew and morphed as we looked for deeper patterns and discussed the nuances of the business, the environment, and the people to whom we had spoken.

The following are the most interesting themes we found.

Our Themes

  1. There is a desire amongst patrons and staff at Buzz Mill to form relationship by remembering one another from previous visits.
  2. People feel connected when creating something in collaboration.
  3. Going to events motivates people to try new things.
  4. Insecurity is an obstacle to engagement.
  5. The responsibility of the staff’s role at Buzz Mill excites them to improve their community.
  6. A passion of a staff member brought them in touch with Buzz Mill initially.
  7. When people feel unique in some way, the space of Buzz Mill has given them the ability to identify others who are unique in the same way.
  8. The physical space of Buzz Mill facilitates the existence and growth of communities

How utterances support our themes

While some of these themes seem obvious and uninteresting (and, let’s face it, as students, we know they could be much better), the point is that the interview data we gathered supports them. The theme Insecurity is an obstacle to engagement, for instance, is supported by utterances from several people who exudes insecurity around doing something or being social. Let’s examine one:

In our blog post about Stories from the Field, we met Haley, a patron of Buzz Mill who attends events and participates in educational and volunteer efforts often. Here is what she said about the very first event she attended at Buzz Mill, which was free. 

“And since it’s free, I was like, “I’d love to spend a couple hours here and buy drink or something. So it’s not like I’m completely freeloading. – Hayley (Line 4)”

Since the event was free to attend, that should reasonably attract more people because it lowers the boundaries of participating. But in this instance, Haley is expressing insecurity around being perceived as taking too much. Thus, making her feel she needs to buy something in order to feel that she belongs.

Since Buzz Mill’s mission is to “cultivate conscious community” by connecting and educating people, it would be important for them to know things that could be causing unease. Perhaps there is an opportunity there to make someone feel more secure and ready to participate and learn.

Presenting our findings to the business

Once we chose our most compelling themes, our team discussed how each utterance supported the theme and how they related to one another. We created a presentation and explained each theme to Buzz Mill’s owner and operations manager.

We tried to show how both patrons and staff at Buzz Mill interact with the space and with each other, and how that creates certain feelings of bonding or when it might lead to uncertainty.

The owner seemed less interested in what we presented about the staff as he works closely with them and would occasionally interrupt to talk about staff roles and expectations. The operations manager, however, took notes and showed us a nifty diagram he had made of how patrons and staff support each other in accomplishing Buzz Mill’s mission to cultivate community. He said he valued seeing the structure of the business in a different way because it gave him several ideas on how to communicate to patrons that Buzz Mill is here for them.

Reflection on Contextual Inquiry Project

Just past the half way mark in our first quarter at AC4D, I have been reflecting on our group service design project at Buzz Mill coffee Shop.

At the beginning of our research we were asked to find a business and pitch a research project the would use contextual inquiry as a means of discovering new opportunities for bettering their service. We had just a few days to find a business that fit all our criteria, secure a partnership, design a research plan, and create a presentation. In our scramble, it was difficult to process what we had learned about contextual inquiry and how it could help us identify new design ideas down the line.

Though my understanding of what contextual inquiry is is still rough, within service design, I understand it to be steeping one’s self in the people and processes of a business by being there and observing things as they occur. This helps the researcher to understand the culture of the business and how things are actually happening in contrast to how they are intended to happen.

This seems straightforward, but I and my group were so focused on the interviewing part of our research plan (which is also integral to this methodology), that we did not conduct much observation before launching into interviews on site.

Now, six weeks in, I am looking over our data and noticing that a lot of the patrons are either oblivious to the idea that Buzz Mill tries to create positive social impact through business and social initiatives, or they only know a few pieces and parts of Buzz Mill’s mission and offerings. This lack of understanding doesn’t seem to come from a lack of visible information. By golly, there are signs and photos and indicators of Buzz Mill’s initiatives everywhere. (see photo below). It’s possible, then, that there is too much disjointed information and patrons are just not able to easily piece it together, but this is just a hypothesis based on my own, personal experience.

Buzz Mill in Austin displays a lot of information around the cafe
Buzz Mill in Austin displays a lot of information around the cafe

If I were to begin this project over again, I would have suggested our group try a participatory design component that would ask patrons seated in the cafe to describe what they know about the company, what they see, and what that tells them about Buzz Mill initiatives. This may have helped us understand how people are processing the information on display and given us insight into understanding gaps. It would have been particularly interesting to ask patrons what they understand from the information scrolling on the two flat-screen tv’s  in the Austin cafe.

A flatscreen at Buzz Mill in Austin displays information about the Lumber Society.
A flatscreen at Buzz Mill in Austin displays information about the Lumber Society.

While we are currently affinity diagraming (looking for patterns) within our current data, I found it helpful to think about what we could have done differently while researching to get deeper results.

Our next presentation around the themes we uncover is this Wednesday, when we shall present our work to both the class and the business.

Poverty and Design: Theory Storyboard

This week, we were tasked with presenting our theory section of Poverty and Design as a storyboard. We read seven authors, analyzed their ideas, and synthesized them within a story.

This project fit nicely with our studio foundations project from last week, which was also a storyboard. I combined the two and tried to put more time and detail into this project instead of rushing breakneck through two different ones.

It is always a challenge for me to use digital tools, as I do not have much training with them.

Below is my story about a village in Zambia and a group of well-meaning designers.

A village in Zambia
In Zambia, villagers share one water pump and there are often long lines for daily water.
2_Panel copy
C.K. Prahalad is an NGO director with an idea.
3_Panel copy
Prahalad explains his idea for a water pump that is also a merry-go-round for children. A water tower will store the water for later consumption and will sell ads to pay for the costs of upkeep.
4_Panel copy
Prahalad believes selling to the poor is good for business and empowers people.
5_Panel copy
Dean Spears

6_Panel copy 7_Panel copy 8_Panel copy 9_Panel copy 10_Panel copy 11_Panel copy 12_Panel copy 13_Panel copy 14_Panel copy 15_Panel copy 16_Panel copy 17_Panel copy 18_Panel copy 19_Panel copy 20_Panel copy

This section was provoking as it challenged me to understand how different philosophical approaches to designing with people who live in poverty could be applied to different situations. As with much of this material, I will need to face some of these quandaries in my own work to tease out how each of them are applicable. However, I feel it is painfully obvious that one must cultivate a deep understanding of a people and their unique situation in order to design for them.