In the past weeks, we’ve been learning more about the role of creativity and design thinking in our world, and the ways to increase the amount of creativeness and designers around us. The more design thinking is happening around us, the easier it is to attach wicked problems.
Please see the video made for this assignmend here.
This story happened in 2097 in LaCountry. Group of scientist invented robots, who were able to do everything or almost everything. There was no need to work for anybody else and the government of LaCountry paid equal amount of money to all its citizens. The President of LaCountry by the way decided to keep his position and not give it away to the robots.
Citizens of LaCountry were very happy for several years. They enjoyed clean streets, delicious dinners and new houses. There was no homelessness anymore.
The life was perfect… Until they forgot what they live for. Without jobs, without any work to do people lost sense of their lives. The amount of suicides went up so drastically.
The President of LaCountry gathered the best scientist who worked on robotization and asked them to find a solution to saving people from losing their minds in the new reality. Scientist were coming up with more and more logical ideas, but nothing really worked. The country was dying.
One day, Mr. President was sitting in a park thinking about what he did wrong and how to save the country. He saw someone familiar walking around – it was Edward de Bono, the psychologist who worked with him a while ago but moved out of LaCountry before the robots took all the jobs.
They were so happy to meet each other. Edward told that his is just visiting his old friends in the country. Edward immediately noticed sadness in Mr. President’s eyes and asked if he wants to talk about it.
Mr. President told about all problems the country has got because of robots and that scientists with their novelty ideas make everything only worse. Edward said:
Oh, Mr. President. If everything was so easy. Novelty is not enough, idea must make sense and work. Your people try to be more logical, but really they should be more creative. Sometimes people can come up with great, creative ideas from ignorance, but not often – so don’t hope on it. You need truly creative people. And creativity is unnatural. Creativity is a skill that can be learned, not the result of serendipity or logic. But cutting across patterns is not natural behavior. However, since creative ideas always seem logical in hindsight, people tend to think that you could come up with them just by being ever more logical. To come up with creative ideas, you should not use logical thinking, but lateral thinking (Cutting across patterns is what I have called lateral thinking); you should provoke your mind out of its existing pattern by forcing yourself to come up with weird alternatives to the status quo. Then you should take those weird alternatives seriously and play out their implications. This allows you to approach problems in an innovative way. Really, Mr. President, with all due respect to your team, logical scientists and engineers won’t make it work; you need to hire designers to work on this type of problems.
Mr. President wasn’t sure what to make of it.
But what type of problems is it? What is so special about it?
I have a friend who can tell you better than I do. Let’s facetime him. His name is Horst Rittel.
Edward called his friend who lived in another country (and whose job wasn’t taken by robots). He described him the situation and how Mr. President is trying to deal with it by giving all the power to hands of scientists.
You are definitely having a wicked problem there. Edward is right: Making solutions to social problems cannot just be left to a faceless group of professionals because social problems are not like Math or Science: there is no universally agreed upon formulation of any one social problem, and even if there were, there would be no set of steps that could be used in every case to solve that problem. Every social problem is unique. Neither, however, should we abandon the social arena to chaos.
You should let people in your country to participate in finding the decision of this problem. Co-design with the people affected by this wicked problem. But what does “wicked” even mean? Wicked problems cannot ever be totally solved because they are too complicated and they are caused by humans, who keep changing. Furthermore, wicked problems never have just one right solution; there are always many solutions, and they can only be judged as good or bad. Judging a solution, though, is sticky in and of itself because there is no value-free way of assessing whether a solution is good, and solutions have such far-reaching consequences that it would be practically impossible to figure out their value in the short run. Also, wicked problems are all mixed up together.
But let me aware you: don’t hope to find a solution which will work forever and for the whole country. Social problems can’t be solved – only resolved over and over again. Humans change, and they are complicated. So there can’t be a simple solution. Wicked problems are never done. You will resolve one and immediately get another one. There is no objective measure of whether solutions to wicked problems are right – only good or bad. No way to know if you have identified all possible solutions to a wicked problem. Every wicked problem is unique – no matter how similar a problem looks, can’t be certain ahead of time that the same solution will work again.
Oh, it all sounds very depressing, but I think this is my only hope! But where I can find designers to work on it if nobody is willing to work?
Designers are always working, even when they don’t have to. I’ll help you to gather the team of the best professionals.
They met each other again in a week in the White House. There were The President, Edward de Buno, Horst Rittel, Nigel Cross, Chris Pacione and Tim Brown.
Nigel Cross gave his advice first:
Mr. President, let me tell you what you should expect from us, because we are going to work very differently from your team of scientists. An engineer wants to test and measure, this is not something we are looking for in our process right now. We need to be creative because “the solution” is not always a straightforward answer to “the problem”. We need to use sketches, drawings, and models of all kinds as a way to exploring problems and solution together, and making some progress when faced with complexity of design. Yes, that’s right, I urge us to go and work with people outside of White House on resolving this wicked problem.
Design ability is inherent in everyone, we need to dig it up and show the people their natural power! Design ability is a multifaceted cognitive skill, possessed in some degree by everyone. If we help people to get it back – they will be happy again!
Mr. President responded:
And so, what is your job is going to be? Are you going to make people’s ideas look beautiful? Tell me more about it.
Mr. Brown and Mrs. Wyatt helped Nigel respond to that:
Design in fact extends beyond making things pretty, it comes into a series of techniques we call design thinking. Design thinking is a way to work at the strategic level that involves techniques such as ethnographic research, ideation, rapid prototyping. Designers also have the ability to be intuitive, recognize patterns, express themselves in graphic media, and persuade others using storytelling. Everyone has these capacities to some extent.
I believe that we should teach people to do it first to work efficiently together.
Our approach is based on some foundational things:
Design thinking process is inspiration, ideation, implementation.
For inspiration, don’t just listen to what people have to say – look at their behavior to see opportunity areas. In ideation, come up with as many ideas as you can; great ideas will rise to the top. Then implement, prototype, use storytelling to communicate solution to all stakeholders.
And so, collaboratively the designers has created a research plan, and went into the world to talk and co-design with the people.
Shortly after, they stopped trying: they were in complete shock. The vast majority people around them has completely lost their creativity! That skills has gone away because there was nowhere to apply it.
More than anybody was touched Chris Pacione.
Folks, design is a new human literacy. Today we must all be designers. Design is too important to be left to designers. Design will have its greatest impact when it is no longer perceived to be in the hands of people who are professional designers and it is put back into the hands of everyone. Design should be one of the basic skills we teach to everyone, like writing or math, because the Information Age, with all its complexity, automation, etc., demands that. So much more of our lives than ever before is designed, so it’s important for everyone to have some familiarity with inquiry, ideation, sketching, and prototyping so that they can engage in strategic thinking and evaluate the designed elements around themselves. So, people will be able to solve their own problems and call us when they meet really big challenge. Professional designers, then, would be left to tackle the truly difficult design problems, engaged in strategic thinking.
But how we can do that? How we can bring creativity into people’s heads? Mr. Cross and Mr. de Bono will agree with me that creativity is not a magical process but a learned skill that can lead to innovation and real problem solving.
Edward de Bono had a real suggestion to helping people become more creative.
Let’s integrate the 6 hat system – a mental tool that I have created to allows people shift their perspective whenever needed. There 6 metaphorical hats, and when you “put” them on, each of them encourages the person to use a different type of thinking. Here are all 6 types: data gathering mode; intuition & emotion; logical negative, judgements and caution; logical positive and benefits; provocation, alternatives and creativity; and, finally, overview and process control. I’ve helped people in large corporations get used to wear a specific hat at a time, and change hats when a change of perspective is needed, and noticed a significant rise in productivity, idea generation, and overall creativity.
So, let’s choose a town or a village and teach this technique to the people in that place, and see whether it changes anything.
They went on and over 12 months applied the concept to every citizen in LaVillage, a small village that had an increasingly high rate of suicides, and an extremely low rate of creativity.
And it was a great success! Suicide rate went down; people found the meaning to their lives, even when they didn’t have to work and robots were doing everything for them; they were applying their creativity and design thinking to improving their life in a variety different and unexpected ways that were not destructive, overall making LaVillage one of the best places to live in LaCountry.
Richard Buchanan has moved into LaCountry from overseas and saw the progress made so far. He had a suggestion that took it to the next level.
I think that design should be considered the new liberal art to suit the modern age, there’s no denying. I believe that everyone should be educated the basic skill set of design when they’re very young, and all the way to the higher education. The improvement in human’s thinking process will make the lives of everyone around better and better.
And together, they made it work. Now every child has their own 6 hats and practice design thinking every day, bringing the value into people’s lives, and making everyone more happy.