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High Fidelity – How to ask the right question

At Austin Center for Design one of the nicest things you can hear is Jon Kolko saying, “You made a thing. I’m proud of you.” You made a thing?  A major tenant of the curriculum is learning to make artifacts as tools to ask questions and make arguments. Ever step of our seven-week-long, iterative assignment to redesign the smart phone app for Austin Public Transit System, Cap Metro, has been about exploring how to create artifacts that ask a question and get the information needed for that stage of the process.

The first week we created a system flow with screen shots from the existing CapMetro app and then created a concept map of the existing app and a concept model of our proposed redesign. A concept map is a visualization of the structure of a system to understand complex interactions that cannot all be viewed simultaneously in the actual product. We started here because this is the right thing to make for the questions we were trying to ask, namely: How does the existing app work and what is wrong with it? What should we do instead? If we had started by recreating and then improving upon a single screen from the CapMetro app, we would have created an artifact that would be excellent for asking questions about CapMetro’s typographic and layout choices, but would not provide useful information about the overall structure of the system.

The second week we started creating wireframes for our proposed new system. Wireframes represent the layout of a screen that focuses on functionality and interactions, rather than visual design. We have iterated on our wireframes each week for the last six weeks, as well as updating our concept model to represent our iterations.

At week three we had iterated on the wireframes once, and it was time to go out and get feedback from real people. To do this we used a method of user testing called the think-out-loud protocol with paper printouts of our wireframes. The user is given a task to perform using the wireframes. While he is completing this task, the user is instructed to “think out loud”, verbalizing each action as he does it. During the test the researcher acts as the “computer” bringing up the appropriate screens in response to the user’s action.

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Each subsequent week of iterating and testing I have had the opportunity to see how the changing level of fidelity of my wireframes, or closeness to the actual thing being represented by the artifact, affects the type of feedback I receive.  In addition to documenting at least three critical breakdowns to address each week, I have found a high-level takeaway from my testing. Many of these have involved how the level fidelity, or closeness to the actual thing being represented by the artifacts, have affected test results. A few weeks ago my high-level takeaway was about the need for better visual consistency and hierarchy in my typography and graphic elements throughout the system – a fidelity issue. Last week, I realized that I was trying to test navigation at a level that depended on the user having a spatial understanding of how on and off screen elements related to one and other. This is largely communicated through animation that was not coming though on paper screens. For my final user tests I created an on screen, clickable prototype, so I could model some of those animations.

 

[Link to clickable prototype here: http://invis.io/9A1W9OYYJ ]

 

What I found from my user testing is that the fidelity  of the clickable prototype created a number of issues of its own. Because the prototype looked very real, and some of the gestures felt like a real application, users were derailed when it did not behave the way a real application should behave. This was especially true for the keyboard, which was just an image with certain sections mapped as hot spots to link to other screens and the map, which was also just a static image and so did not allow for zooming in and zooming out.

“Wait, the keyboard is broken…” – User 2

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Despite these issues, I got useful validation on my updates to the real time bus arrival feature, called Next Bus (see Next Bus Flow below), and feedback that lead to a final tweak to my on-going attempt to integrate step-by-step written directions to a destination with the map of the route (see screen 27 and screen 29 from the Search Flow).


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“I don’t expect to swipe [between things] on a map.” – User 4

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So, that’s it for this quarter. I made a thing, and I’m proud of me. I have learned about the specifics of designing a transportation application, about the tools and techniques available for wire framing and I have continued to hone my ability to craft artifacts that elicit feedback that is useful.

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CapMetro App Revamp: Iteration 5 + User Testing

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This week in our Rapid Ideation and Problem Solving class we are presenting the fifth iteration of our redesigned mobile application for Austin’s public transportation provider, CapMetro.  Each week we run a formal critique in class to gain feedback from from fellow students, faculty and visiting lecturers, and use the information we gather from these critiques to iterate on the look, flow and functionality of the design.  The last three weeks we have also incorporated user testing as means to gaining insight into the usability of our designs.

The format of user testing we have utilized is called the Think Aloud Protocol.  The Think Aloud Protocol involves a user who interacts with one wireframe at a time as if it was an actual device.  The person administering the test acts as the “computer” and is responsible for giving the user the next appropriate screen based on their interactions.  On top of observing the user interacting with the design, the users are asked to verbalize what they are thinking as they interact with the screens.  As it turns out, humans are pretty good at verbalizing what they are thinking while they are thinking it, and it has been shown that verbalizing those thoughts doesn’t significantly effect their actions.  This makes this form of user testing extremely valuable for designers who are always looking to understand both the how and why behind people’s actions.  Other forms of testing, specifically tests that accumulate metrics, are good at understanding how people interact with a product, but without hearing people verbalize their rationale behind certain actions, they’ll only be able to guess as to the why. 

That said, this form of testing is easier said than done.  It may seem obvious, but I’m finding that in order to get rich data, it takes a test subject who isn’t reluctant to speak aloud about what they are thinking.  To maximize the likelihood of success, the person administering the test must focus on the way they present the test to the user.  Using self-deprecation, giving an example of how thinking aloud sounds, assuring the user that the design is being tested, not them, and even telling them that they are testing somebody else’s design so they are not afraid of hurting the test giver’s feelings can help put the user at ease and make for more useful data.

This week I went to a local bar with some of my fellow design students and we set up shop offering to buy people beers of they would user test with us.  While it may not seem like a great idea to involve alcohol in a user test, it actually works out great.  A little alcohol seems to diminish some of the inhibitions that usually accompany the awkwardness of thinking aloud in front of a total stranger.  I tested with 5 individuals at the bar, and was happy with the information I was able to learn from them.

The wireframe screens I tested are presented at top, and are organized into three main flows listed in the left column.  These flows are based on the concept map below (click images for a closer look):

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The first flow, which is my main “hero” flow, involves finding out when the next bus will be arriving at a nearby stop.  Compared to previous iterations, this task improved significantly.  I focused on increasing the fidelity of these screens this week, and it was great to see the impact this had on how well these screens were navigated.  While my main flow improved significantly, the other two flows did not see as much success.

The screen below from my second flow gave some people trouble:

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The icons circled in the picture are meant to represent “history” or “recent searches” but this is not obvious to the user and so I will be providing a heading above these in the future that says “Recent” in the same way it says “Favorites” above favorites.  I also think some of the confusion from this screen is just a challenge of testing a paper prototype; Paper prototypes are static, so the user can’t experience any of the moving/animated affordances.  In this case the user does not experience the keyboard and the “recent/favorites” animating into place, and so they were confused with how this screen related to their previous action of tapping the “Enter your Destination.”  For testing purposes, it may be necessary to provide an intermediate step between these screens, showing the motion, to give the user a more realistic experience.

The screen below also gave people trouble with my second flow:

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The location and destination is sized too large, and people were confused why the arrow is pointing to a destination that is not the destination they typed in.  Most people thought the “8min” refers to when the bus will be arriving (and not the duration as I had intended it), and they were confused with why this information is presented with the “leaves at 2:13 pm” thinking this information is redundant.  This week I will be placing a lot of focus on this screen and will try to create a number of iterations playing with size and priority of information, and hopefully next week this screen will be much more clear & usable.

For the third flow — buying a pass — there was one consistent area of confusion that involved the transition between the screens below:

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In this iteration, after people enter their credit card information, a button shows up with the card they entered showing as an available payment method.  Through my testing it became clear that this is an unnecessary step.  The user just entered the card number of the card they want to pay with, why am I now forcing them to select that card for payment?  While I could just make an incremental change to fix that, overall, I’m not happy with this flow and want to rethink it completely.  This week I’ll be focusing on simplifying this flow to make it less clunky and flow more naturally.

Overall this week I’m happy with my progress and happy with the information I gained from testing.  I feel like I have a clear path forward and feel confident that my next iterations will continue to improve.  If you have any feedback or thoughts on ways to improve this design please feel free to leave a comment below.

See you next week!

 

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Perspectives on Debt among 18 – 26 year olds: Who influences? Who supports?

Lauren Segapeli, Samara Watkiss and myself will be spending the next 7 weeks researching the intersection of personal relationships and debt in the lives of young adults. Our interest in this topic arose from the importance of community in micro-lending in other cultures and curiosity why such community-centric financial support isn’t leveraged in the United States.

We will look at the cultural norms and mental models around debt and debt resources and how friends, family and romantic partners influence and support the development of financial habits and financial literacy.

We will focus our research on men and women between the ages of 18-26 from varying socioeconomic and racial groups. People in this age group are in the process of developing their own patterns of financial decision making and faced with many new financial questions.   In particular we plan to talk with individuals who have recently graduated from high school, started a full time job, are going to college, have graduated from college, been recently married, moved in with roommates, or are having children.  We are interested in learning how these life-events affect individuals’ approaches to managing their finances, and the ways in which they utilize their social or family networks to tackle the financial challenges they face.

Through methods of contextual inquiry, we will observe the financial habits of young people in the context which they happen, as well as the tools and artifacts they use to manage and track their finances. We will employ investigative exercises in which the participant will create a timeline illustrating the role finances have played in various stages of their lives. Such participatory exercises will act as creative and reflective stimulus to help pull more rich, detailed information from the participants.

We have developed a full research plan that includes details about the methods and participants we will be focusing on, a weekly schedule, a discussion guide and script to be used throughout the process.  The completed research plan can be found here.

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Kicking Off the First AC4D Alumni Design-a-Thon

On Wednesday, October 8th, I jointly kicked off the first AC4D Alumni Design-a-Thon for Social Good.  A Design-a-Thon is a term that I use loosely to describe a shared design process, similar to a hackathon, with “appropriate” time set aside for each phase of design.  Over the next month, our core team of 4 alumni and 12 part-time alumni will be exploring the topic of Linguistic and Cultural Barriers for Hispanics in the city of Austin; a very large and diverse, but seemingly segregated group in our city.

I am so excited to interact with this community, to learn from them, and hopefully come up with an exciting product or service concept that we can actually build.  Y finalmente, yo tengo una oportunidad a usar el lenguaje en lugar de solo preguntado por tacos!  I joke, but there’s definitely something about getting “stuck” in one’s place in the city as I sometimes lament; in not expanding or growing, but seeing things the same way and falling into routines. There will be more posts in the future by other members of the core design team, including Melissa Chapman, Chuck Hildebrand, and Bhavini Patel, tracking both arcs of personal and project experience.  I want to take my time to focus on the expansive nature of this Design-a-Thon, and give context on what it means to me.

First, connection.

I remember Ruby Ku (’11) and I (’13) discussing alumni engagement over coffee at Cenote, one of our favorite spots in East Austin.  The intensity of the AC4D program – working day in and day out, for long hours with the same group of 10 people – feels so imbalanced to the post-program experience, where we haven’t had structured ways to keep involved and connected with each other. That’s disappointing, and something we agreed we should work to change.  The Design-a-Thon was born over that discussion, realizing that we should work together for fun: as a chance to retell stories and laugh, as well as grow professionally.  We can learn so much from each other and build our talents further. Many of us have been apart for 1-2 years, working on different projects and with differing methodologies across Austin.

Second, potential impact.

I remember my first design bootcamp.  I was a non-designer, trying to figure out how to do the process of design, without the actual time to process what I was really doing.  Now, with training and the design toolkit under my belt, I feel more confident in the design process.  Design gives me authority to be in places I don’t belong, and ask questions I should not – what my work colleague Briana would consider the privilege to be “nosy”.  These experiences lead to insights that are the seeds to ideas that through refinement and testing can have great impact and value to individuals.

I think all of us who’ve come through the program define impact in part as working on projects that have the potential to effect reduction in community ills.  We perceive them as the issues that “really matter” to quality of life, and to the largest number of people.  That is the allure.  We all experienced it going through the curriculum, through our own projects or watching ones that other alumni have continued.  We want to follow it now that our skills are growing up.

Many say good design is achieved through design; namely, repetition.  I’m excited to see what we can deliver on during this iteration.

 

 

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Studio: You are MY sunshine

Even on the dreariest days, in a town where droplets falling from the sky is never a thing you are prepared for, the umbrella service is here, brought to you by Laura Galos, Lindsay Josal, and me, Crystal.

You are my sunshine…

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The Result…

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Studio: Sew now what

EPSON MFP image — and imagine the rest of your life, narrated by Alec Baldwin

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Farm to drawing table

Studio class always means getting our hands dirty, but last week it wasn’t just Sharpies and Expo markers. Two of my classmates and I went to a farm as inspiration for our storyboard assignment and came back with a new experience, a box of veggies, and some dirt under our nails. I always have fun drawing storyboards, but this one was particularly difficult to manage with all the details I wanted to include from the trip.

From seeing my classmates’ work, I think that the most emotionally resonant and humorous storyboards include periodic reactions from the main character (or self, if it’s you that you’re drawing). Storyboards are an amazing way of getting others to understand and feel for characters quickly, so the more of those emotional interjections I can include in my future work, the better. Here’s what came out of my experience at the farm (click for a zoomable view):

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Design Research in the Context of Addiction

Just three weeks ago, Jeff, William and I began the design research process as students of AC4D by developing a plan focused on learning about what addiction can do to a family. We began by putting our assumptions and ideas about addiction up on a white board and talked through having the experts (not us) teach us what this wicked problem is all about. As new design researchers, it was natural for us to approach this subject with a beginner’s mind.

We reached out to participants identified in our initial research plan including an addict, an addict’s family member, law enforcement and support. We secured the participants for our interviews a few different ways. Some were through personal connections. Others, like treatment and support, were scheduled through email, phone and in-person outreach. We were surprised by how willing people were to share their expertise with us.

Our first interview was with a 19 year old heroin addict. We prepared for this interview by developing questions and building them into a discussion guide. The discussion guide was created with the intent of shaping the conversation and asking questions that we felt would help us better understand addiction. Even after having done this and roleplaying the interview with each other, nothing could really prepare us for what our first participant shared. Hearing about some of the darkest details of his addiction, his attempts at recovery and the overwhelming love he had for his family exposed us to how complex addiction really is.

As design researchers, we came away from this interview with several learnings about engaging with people and moderating the conversation. We felt that having the discussion guide present during the interview was distracting to both our participant and our moderator. Listening back to the interview recording later revealed that our focus on the discussion guide questions prevented us from allowing the participant’s stories to cue the next question. Going into our second interview with the addict’s father, we decided to take a more conversational approach. From this interview, we learned that addiction affects every member of their family and that each person must decide for themselves what their relationship with the addict can be.

The more interviews we conducted, the more confidence we gained in asking for access. We got better at being the apprentice. In our third interview with the executive director of a support program for teens, he walked us through what it was like to have an initial conversation with a teen and their family that has come to seek their help and services. He showed us the assessment tools that the program uses to gain baseline information about a teen’s substance usage.

Our participants were experts on the topic of addiction and it was a humbling experience for all of us to hear their stories and learn from them.

Creating a safe space for our participants has revealed itself to be as helpful to them as it is to us. People don’t usually have the chance to share their lives without fear of being judged. While we did not come away from this research with answers to the complexities of addiction, we are excited to continue seeing where this will lead us next. Click here to see the presentation of our learnings.

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Couch Potatoes & Smart Cookies: Teenage Food Choices

Food for thought: how do teenagers make food choices when they’re away from their parents? Does family or income have anything to do with what teenagers eat? What about body image, or gender? Our team (Lindsay Josal, Crystal Watson, and Laura Galos) started with these questions at the outset of our design project for the Design Research and Synthesis class at AC4D. We’ve just wrapped up two weeks of design research, and have documented our journey and the people we met, here.

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Using our noodles: What we did

We began with a shared interest in nutrition as a broad topic for exploration. Given a prompt to focus on teenagers and obesity, our group decided to broaden the focus to “teenage eating habits and food choices,” and try to understand influencing factors such as family, culture, gender, body image, and income levels. Over the course of our research, some of those influences clearly applied, some were less important, and unanticipated influences appeared.

Spilling the beans: Talking to teenagers

Our research method was to use contextual inquiry to understand and empathize with the teenagers. Contextual inquiry was important because it meant that we went to the environments where teenagers were naturally making their food choices and observed them as they navigated the process of selection, ordering, paying, and eating. For us, this shed some light on contradictions between the things teenagers said and the things they did. (For example, asserting an interest in eating healthy foods but actually eating chips and soda.)

Before going to each context (Barton Creek Mall, UT dining halls, Torchy’s and Bennu), we had developed a research plan (posted earlier, here). The plan changed a little as we refined our strategy regarding who to approach and where, given the complexities—such the issue of consent—of interviewing teenagers. In the field, we took audio recordings, photographs, notes, and developed a word cloud to allow them to explore their feelings about eating. With these artifacts, we hoped to capture as much information as possible so we’d have a rich pool of data on which to base our synthesis.

In a nutshell: What we found

We heard from six teenagers ranging in age from 14 to 20 (ok, 20 isn’t technically “teenage” but we felt the participant gave us compelling information and was close in age to our target). Along the way, we found a few things that improved our research process, and also learned about teenage culture, especially around food. For us, a few key learnings were:
1. Offering incentive for teenagers’ time made them more open to letting us watch and interview them.
2. That we needed to be more formal about scheduling time with people younger than 17, since arrangements needed to be made with parents.
3. That we could use environments to screen for appropriate candidates (eg, going to UT to find people over 17).

While we haven’t yet begun synthesis of all the information we got from the teenagers, we have found emerging themes connected to food. Several teenagers brought up strong family dynamics around cooking or not knowing how to cook, and who does the cooking in the family. We noticed that dramatic geographical relocations can be very disruptive to food habits and decisions. As previously mentioned, we also saw divisions between what teenagers said they ate and what they actually ate. On the whole, we’re excited to see problems and themes as they materialize from our transcriptions and photos, and look forward to our next phase.

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Making Our Way into the Unknown

The future is bright, the future is scary. Most of all, the future is uncertain. Whether you’re hopeful or anxious about what’s next, it’s difficult to face the future without some trepidation. How will we address tomorrow’s consequences of today’s problems? Answers may lie in disciplines as varied as government, activism, art, and science. As a student of design, I’d like to know how effective a role design can play as well.

In our Design, Society, and the Public Sector class at AC4D, where we discuss the theory behind design, we’ve been reading the texts of six different authors. The focus of each article varies, but all reveal a distinct viewpoint on how effective design can be as a means of addressing the future. I’ve plotted out what stances the authors might take in this diagram.

At the “less powerful” end of the spectrum is Maurizio Vitta. In The Meaning of Design, Vitta writes that designed objects in our society have lost their functional identity. These objects can only serve as instruments for communicating who their consumers are. Our objects say to other people, “he’s the type of guy who owns a BMW.” Based on this analysis, design occupies a role that shows us who we are, or at most, a projection of who we’d like to be, but isn’t very effective at addressing how situations and people might radically change.

At the other end of the diagram is Victor Margolin. In Global Expansion or Global Equilibrium? Design and the World Situation, Margolin postulates that designers are in a unique position to tangibly demonstrate “new values in action.” Because designers make systems, products, services, etc., they sit at a “strategic position” between a highly market-driven worldview (expansion model) and one that takes into account the finite and interconnected nature of our resources (equilibrium model). Furthermore, he believes that demonstration has the power to convince where pure argument can’t—a key component in the adoption of solutions.

My views tend to align more closely with Margolin, because I think an effective way of exerting a degree of control on the future is by making things. Be cognizant about making things that can educate, respond, comfort, and convince others of their value, and you’ll have made a dent in the future. To Vitta’s point, not all objects will operate along Margolin’s equilibrium model, but based on the readings I think that in general design holds enormous potential for both making and mitigating change.

Readings:
The Meaning of Design by Maurizio Vitta
Manipulating Public Opinion: The Why and The How by Edward Bernays
The Need for a Theory of Experience by John Dewey
A Tale of Two Publics: Democratizing Design at the Margins by Christopher Le Dantec
Depth Over Breadth: Designing for Impact Locally, and For The Long Haul by Emily Pilloton
Global Expansion or Global Equilibrium? Design and the World Situation by Victor Margolin

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