Part Four: Arriving at Insights for Austin Parks Foundation

This is Part 4 in a series about our Service Design Project for Austin Parks Foundation. Follow our process: Part 1: Stories from the Field, Part 2: Themes, Part 3: Service Slices.

Since August, our team (Kyle, Michelle, Laura) has been working with Austin Parks Foundation (APF) to help them better understand the feelings of ownership over green spaces; specifically how those feelings of ownership can develop and drive behavior. 


Through contextual inquiry and the sense-making process of theme-finding and service slice creation, we’ve developed a better understanding of how Austinites at multiple levels interact with the park system. Up until now, we’ve been in observation mode — interviewing participants, finding patterns in behavior, and mapping complex systems.

Earlier this month, we presented our themes and service slices to APF, which sparked a deep conversation around these themes and behaviors. While APF has a deep understanding of their stakeholders, presenting this data in a way that was both new and visual helped open communication around their blind spots of the problem space. As specialists in the arena, they were also able to help guide our insights by providing additional context and allowed us to gain empathy with their unique challenges. 

Now we start to apply a critical lens to develop insights and a problem statement that will be the foundation for our design criteria. 

IDSE101_blog_insights graphic


An insight is a definitive, provocative statement of truth about human behavior. It is a bridge between research and design. An insight should include both an inferred observation and a provocation — a “should” statement. Good insights reflect our data (it should be true) while also sparking conversation (it can be debated). 

To get to an insight we:

  1. Start with a theme. 
  2. Rewrite our theme as a “why” statement.
  3. Individually, we each create a provocative, definitive and complete answer to this “why” question. 
  4. Then together, we review each answer and combine into a single statement — and dial up the provocation. The more provocative, the more unique (and challenging) our design ideas can be. 

Insight 4

We applied this process to 64 themes and created 119 why statements. With such a high volume, we gravitated towards insights that continued to spark conversation and provocation and chose those as our primary focus. From here, we developed a core problem statement.


All of this sensemaking and insight development culminates with a problem statement — a succinct statement that describes the core opportunity area. 

Oftentimes businesses jump right to an assumed problem. They focus on the same metric or the same process or goals — when the biggest problem area is yet to be uncovered. Simply put, they can’t see the forest for the trees. That’s where design research comes in. It allows us to take a step back, revisit the system with fresh eyes, and find latent needs or unmet expectations. 

A problem statement is a succinct description of the issue that’s worth solving. It provides a foundation for ideation. For APF, our problem statement is:

People need Austin Parks Foundation to provide leadership, not just create consensus.


In many ways, APF acts as an extension of the city. Where Austin Parks and Rec Department (PARD) lacks funding and manpower, APF seeks to fill that gap. Because of APF’s close ties with PARD and the city, they use many of the same community-focused initiatives to come to a consensus among park adopters, visitors, neighborhood associations, conservancies, city departments, and their own goals as a nonprofit. All of these groups look to the community to drive their strategy — rather than one leading the charge. 

While, in theory, this community-led strategy should encourage access and opportunity for all, we found that often this lack of focus creates confusion and, paradoxically, feelings of being left out or ignored when an opinion is expressed, but not brought to life.  We also saw that despite massive investments of time and energy in communicating with the public, most park users didn’t have awareness of those efforts. The rarified few that were aware were small politically connected subsets of the population such as leaders of neighborhood organizations or people active in non-profit work. To those not involved, these processes do not seem inclusive or transparent. 

This is seen clearly among the largest, yet least engaged stakeholder group for Austin Parks Foundation — park visitors — which leads us to our first insight:

Not defining how a park should be used leads to assumptions about who belongs in a park. APF should actively foster interactions across geography and demography to reduce negative judgments between users.

We heard many times from park leaders that there’s no “right way” to use a park — parks are for everyone. Yet park users did feel there were “right ways” to use a park — and oftentimes those “right ways” are conflicting.

Amanda, a new eastside resident, enjoys when families from outside of her neighborhood use her park throw events. In direct opposition is Daniel, a longtime park advocate, who felt that his neighborhood park was for his neighbors — and expressed judgment about outside visitors throwing events in his park. Because “ideal park behavior” has not been defined, visitors create their own expectations which lead to conflict. 

One of the many homeless encampments we witnessed in parks, which were highly controversial.
One of the many homeless encampments we witnessed in parks, which were highly controversial.

We saw this pattern across park users of different types (cyclists versus dog walkers), with each group making negative assumptions about the impacts of the wrong types of use. Most glaringly we saw this problem manifest in attitudes and behaviors about park users perceived to be homeless. 

This misunderstanding continues to the next most engaged cohort, park volunteers. We saw a wide range of volunteerism in our interviews, from physical labor to park advocacy to community organizing and event planning. All manifestations of the Austin Parks Foundation mission, People + Parks. We also heard from people who had talents and passions they wanted to share, such as web development, outdoor activity instruction or environmental education, but either didn’t believe that there was support for their contributions, were unaware of the entry points to volunteering, or even perceived parks as a hostile environment for their type of volunteerism. APF has not clearly defined and supported roles for the myriad types of volunteerism that park users feel inspired by. This led us to our second insight:

People believe that volunteering in parks must be physical, which limits the potential impact of volunteer efforts and restricts APF’s ability to engage the community. APF should diversify its support for volunteer engagement beyond current programming.

Sally, a retired disability advocate and active forager, values her neighborhood preserve and wants to help maintain it but her back injury has kept her from volunteering. She told us “You know what I would love to do? Organize neighborhood cleanups or put up signs to identify trees.” She also wanted to lead nature hikes and teach ethnobotany, but given her current understanding of park volunteerism, she didn’t believe it was possible.

Sally pointing out features of a plant, something she would like to do formally through volunteer nature walks.
Sally pointing out features of a plant, something she would like to do formally through volunteer nature walks.


Several park visitors and adopters felt that their park was underserved and blamed this on funds being diverted elsewhere. This tension was most often seen as a battle of “old Austin versus new Austin” or an “East versus West” mentality. Because park users felt funds weren’t being divvied correctly, it made them less likely to contribute at all. 

Park users want to hoard resources for their park rather than contribute equitably to funding parks across Austin. APF needs to build more robust safeguards into their systems to counteract this tendency.

Wes, a regular user of Austin basketball courts, wanted to improve his park rather than Austin parks as a whole. 

“I really want to know: how can I make a difference? Does my money … really make a difference where I want it to? Is that me being selfish by wanting to improve one park that’s close to me versus improving the parks in Austin as a whole?”

Wes would pay to get these trees cut, or to get a backboard added to his favorite court, but wants to know his money is being used where he wants.
Wes would pay to get these trees cut, or to get a backboard added to his favorite court, but wants to know his money is being used where he wants.

While APF and the city want to see all parks improve and park users shared this sentiment in theory, ultimately park users want to see their park improve the most. This was seen at a heightened level among park adopters. 

The Park Adopter program amplifies existing inequities by matching highly privileged adopters to parks in their own affluent neighborhoods. APF should proactively manage this program to deconcentrate existing social capital and ensure equal access to funding and support.

The Park Adopter program turns citizens into advocates for their parks, so it’s a logical step that they would feel their park is most deserving of limited resources, whether from APF, the City of Austin or other grant-making organizations. But in this scenario, educated, wealthy and well-connected park adopters in affluent neighborhoods have the time, experience and access to divert funds to their park in creative ways. 

The road that a Park Adopter is petitioning to remove from his park, which will restrict parking for outside visitors.
The road that a Park Adopter is petitioning to remove from his park, which will restrict parking for outside visitors.

10+ year park adopter Daniel skillfully maneuvers using his neighborhood association, city representative and lobbying methods to get funds for his neighborhood. Meanwhile, new park adopter Rico has less time, funds and access, which leads to his park receiving less over time.

While APF wants to serve historically underserved areas of North, South, and East Austin — the “Eastern Crescent”, they still have adopters and systems that have been in place for nearly a decade that continue to reinforce power for the already powerful. Everyone feels they deserve more, and the current model for grant approval favors the squeakiest wheels. And the folks with the most time to squeak are often the most privileged.


Now that we have a clearer focus of the problem area, we will work to provide recommendations and design criteria. These design criteria should empower Austin Parks Foundation to be able to develop its own programs, services, or even products that truly answer the problem area we uncovered.

Part Two: Researching The New American Dream with the Gig Economy

This is the second post in a series about our research in partnership with JUST, an Austin-based nonprofit that seeks to build resilient communities through financial inclusion. For Part One with information about AC4D, JUST, and the focus of our research, go here.

Our Focus

Initially, our focus was simply to look at how gig economy workers are making financial decisions with fluctuating income streams. After a few initial interviews and feedback from our team, we’ve shifted our focus to better understand how the gig economy is supporting a new “American Dream” — one that values flexibility and freedom over stability.

Why the Gig Economy?

The gig economy is experiencing incredible turmoil as lawmakers, unions, workers, and companies all struggle to find common ground. Despite nearly a decade of growth in the on-demand economy, few unions exist and labor classifications are largely still in a traditional 1099 vs W2 model.

In the last few months alone, the first international food delivery app union formed, Instacart workers striked for the fourth year in a row, Uber drivers protested en masse at the homes of investors to protest the treatment of drivers, and lawmakers from California to New York fought to give more rights to workers.

While the gig economy offers a low barrier to entry and access to fast cash, it is also ripe for worker exploitation. Less than 5% of on-demand gig economy workers use apps as their primary source of income and retention rates among platforms are low, which leads to a highly transient workforce that is difficult to mobilize.

Despite these pitfalls, the gig economy continues to grow as Americans search for ways to supplement their income, pay debts, or meet earnings goals.

Assumptions to Guide Research

With all of this in mind, we started our project with assumptions that helped guide our script and exercises.

  • We believe that on-demand gig workers largely overestimate what they receive from platforms — money, freedom, and control.
  • We believe that on-demand workers will be more likely to cut corners and assume greater risks to achieve their goals, like not purchasing commercial auto insurance or preparing for taxes in advance.
  • Because of quick access to cash that is difficult to track, we believe that on-demand workers will likely consider their goals in terms of time (hours, days, months) rather than clear dollar amounts. For example, a worker may set goals to work 3 hours a day, 5 days a week rather than setting a strict dollar amount goal.
  • As a result of this easy access to “instant cash”, we also anticipate that gig-economy workers will loosely budget resources in the short term (days/weeks) rather than long-term (months/years).

Our Participants

We talked to 14 on-demand gig economy workers with current and previous experience with Uber, Lyft, Shipt, Instacart, Favor, Postmates, Amazon, Task Rabbit, Bird, and Rover. Roughly half of our participants used the gig economy as their main source of income with the other half using the gig economy to supplement their primary job.

Our Methods

With our focus statement and assumptions in mind, we developed a script and exercises to help guide our research.

First, we start the interview to get a foundational understanding of our participants’ backgrounds and involvement with the gig economy. Then, we ask participants to engage in a series of activities designed to uncover the mindset and behaviors people have related to gig work, decision making, and personal value systems.

Card Sorting
We give participants cards with words commonly used to describe work like flexible, money, community, on-the-job training, and more. Then, we ask participants to organize these cards in a way that is meaningful to them to help us uncover what aspects of work are important and affect their decision-making.

Card Sorting Exercise

Nando, an Amazon worker and previous Favor Runner, ordered cards from most important to least important. He placed most of his emphasis on a fulfilling, stable career with strong growth potential.

Dream Web
To help us consider how participants consider their current or future potential, we had them map out a dream web. Starting with them in the center, they mapped specific goals and we probed on if they had timelines or clear paths towards achieving those goals.

Brittany Dream Web

Brittany, a single mom of 4, drew that her main goals were to own a home, put her children through college, get married, and start a nonprofit. She was very focused on providing a better future for her children and her community, so they don’t have to overcome the same difficulties she went through as a single parent.

Stressed vs Stable Timeline
Next, we had participants map out a recent time in their life when they were feeling financially stressed or stable. This exercise helped us understand how participants have navigated moments of financial stress or stability. We also were able to better understand what specifically made certain situations stressful or stable and what strategies were employed in either state.

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Holly, an ex-software developer and Lyft driver, mapped out the last year of her life — starting with getting laid off in January until now. A major theme we saw was that stressed periods are not always a result of finances. In Holly’s case, one of her strongest periods was when she was not working at all.

Why contextual research?

You may be asking: why sit with people and map their dreams when you could send out a survey? Why start with people at all? Oftentimes, we think we understand the problem space and spend the majority of our time on solutions. But our method forces us to take a step back and first look for the right problem.

By spending time with the people we seek to help, we can get a better idea of their values, needs, and behaviors. Surveys often point you to what people already know they want. Through contextual research and probing, we are able to find latent needs: problem areas that our users may not be aware of yet.

By the end of this quarter, we hope to present JUST with a succinct problem statement so they can move forward — confident that their solution solves the right problem.

Next Steps

Now that we’ve compiled all of our interview data, we are in synthesis mode — making sense of this data by finding themes and creating visual representations of the system (service slices and concept maps). From there, we’ll use those themes as the foundation for insights — which will help lead us to our primary problem statement. This problem statement will ultimately serve as the catalyst for all of our design ideas in Quarter 3 and Quarter 4.

Have questions about our research? Are you in the gig economy and want to design with us? Email us at with details.

Financial Decision-Making Among Gig Economy Workers

For the next 8 weeks, our group (Allison, Michelle, and Laura) will be working with Austin-based nonprofit JUST to help them better understand financial decision-making among gig economy workers.

Historically, barriers such as credit scores, collateral, and track record have excluded people from starting and growing a business. The JUST program is designed to unlock resources for entrepreneurs to thrive.

What is JUST?

Founded by Steve Wanta (formerly the director of Whole Planet Foundation), JUST aims to build resilient communities through capital, coaching, and community. JUST provides loans exclusively based on trust (not collateral or credit score) to female, Spanish-speaking entrepreneurs. 

Since 2016, JUST has loaned over $3.5 million to 2,000+ loans — with a 99.3% repayment rate.

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The core tenants of JUST’s program.

The Challenge

JUST deeply understands the community they serve — Spanish-speaking, female entrepreneurs — and have proven their model to be successful within this group. As JUST looks to expand their mission and future offerings, they want to better understand the financial behaviors of a wider audience. 

That’s where we come in. JUST has partnered with Austin Center for Design students to research new communities and our team is working with an ever-evolving community: gig-economy workers. 

Our Focus

Through interviews, activities, and observation, we hope to better understand how workers in the on-demand gig economy are making financial decisions and how they navigate decision making with fluctuating income streams. 

We hope to talk with:

  • Full-time gig economy workers
  • Workers who use the gig-economy to supplement their income (entrepreneurs, hourly wage)
  • Students who use the gig-economy to provide income for basic needs

Our Methods

We hope to spend 1-2 hours with each person observing them while they work and then doing activities to dig further into financial decision-making. All interviews will be anonymized and this data will be used for research purposes only.

We Need Your Help!

If you are working in the gig economy and would be willing to help us with our research, please email us at to get started. Your perspective is incredibly valuable to better understanding and ultimately designing solutions for this unique group of workers.

As students working with a nonprofit, we appreciate your willingness to help both us and our community. 

Austin Center for Design
Austin Center for Design (AC4D) is an educational program uniquely focused on applying design principles to address social and humanitarian problems. Explore more of our philosophy and approach here

Making D: Principles of Design and Finding Designer Intuition

As we finish our first quarter at AC4D, we continue to ask fundamental questions: What is a design? What makes design unique from other domains? Can a computer design? What’s a design problem?

What is design?

I started this program with a semi-cogent definition of what design is and why I wanted to be a designer: I wanted to make things. I wanted to help people. 

Right now, I’m at the peak of the complexity curve. I’ve gathered so much new information, and haven’t had enough time to internalize it and simplify it. With more information than ever, I’m also more confused than ever. 

So this section as we discussed design thinking, process, and what it means to be a designer — I kept coming back to intuition. Sure, I can absorb information; tell you the difference between an ill-structured problem and a well-structured problem, regurgitate the 10 principles of wicked problems, or teach you a creative exercise using random words. But when presented with a truly wicked problem, can I trust my intuition to know where to start? Can I find my voice as a designer to feel comfortable experimenting with creative problems?

Codifying Design

To help me illustrate this internal tension, I started thinking about the idea of programming these learnings to create a robot design assistant. If you can program something, then you must truly understand it, right?

In 1973, Harold Cohen created AARON, a computer program designed to produce art autonomously.

Cohen trained AARON to create drawings through iterative design progress — evaluating the output and then modifying the program to reflect his own aesthetic. AARON cannot learn on its own, it needs input from Cohen. AARON has received a lot of attention as a feat of engineering and artistic effort — but Cohen is cautious to say AARON is creative. 

It is Cohen who codes his process — he provides the rules. AARON is also incredibly prolific, sometimes making 50 images in an evening. But is it Cohen who chooses from this massive collection of work. He curates the experience. It’s the act of deciding what to teach AARON and curating his paintings that is truly the creative process. 

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So even if I could codify all principles of design and internalize them perfectly, when do I apply them? What’s the problem I’m trying to solve?  

Distilling Principles of Design

In my comic, my character seeks to do just that — with the help of our lastest seven authors aka The Design Council. I start by trying to identify distinct design abilities. Pacione, Cross, and deBono have all identified key skills of a designer. 


Pacione says design skills can not only be codified, but they can also be taught. Cross insists that a designer must be able to:

  • “Produce novel, unexpected solutions
  • Tolerate uncertainty, working with incomplete information
  • Apply imagination and constructive forethought to practical problems
  • Use drawings and other modeling media as means of problem-solving”

And deBono feels that serious creativity can be taught — through concepts as simple as his 6-thinking hat system.

While deBono and Pacione’s perspectives are encouraging for making a design robot, Cross forces my character to start to ask questions. How can a program work in uncertainty? Likewise, when do I, as a designer, know when to tolerate uncertainty or when should I dig further?

Despite this setback, my character moves forward with what I know. D, the robot design assistant, can now draw and share deBono’s creative prompts.

Design Frameworks

Then I move onto Wyatt and Buchanan. While Wyatt has a seemingly simple process for design thinking: Inspiration, Ideation, and Implementation; each process is incredibly nuanced. Buchanan starts to confuse me even further. He says that design can be applied to any area in the human experience. 

If that’s true, then what is a design problem? How can I teach my design assistant (or myself) where to focus?

Again, I move forward with the tangible and my robot can now test prototypes and regurgitate the 3 I’s: Inspiration, Ideation, and Implementation. 

Problem Finding

My character is starting to understand design abilities and frameworks but is stuck on this idea of problem finding. I talk to Simon and Rittel in hopes of gaining clarity. 

Simon has identified the differences between well-structured problems and ill-structured problems. What a great place to start! But unfortunately for my robot — almost all problems are ill-structured. 

Rittel pushes this confusion further, saying:

“In the absence of an overriding social theory or an overriding social ethic, there is no gainsaying which group is right and which should have its ends served.” – Rittel & Webber

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So not only are problems complex and difficult to find, they are everywhere, and there is no unified social order for which problems to prioritize. 

Designer Intuition

Ultimately, my robot ends up spewing out quotes from deBono, Cross, and constantly asking “Why.” While these are all valid contributions to being a designer, it’s vital to know when to apply these tools. You must develop your designerly intuition. 

So just as AARON creates artwork for Cohen, it’s up to Cohen to determine what to teach AARON, and ultimately, which pieces are truly creative. 

I could create a design robot based on the fundamentals of these readings, but it is only through the act of designing that I can start to develop my own voice and intuition.

See the full comic here.

Part Two: Finding Themes for Austin Parks Foundation

This is Part Two in a Service Design Project for Austin Parks Foundation. For Part One: Stories from the Field, go here

Since August, our team (Kyle, Michelle, Laura) has been working with Austin Parks Foundation to help them better understand the feelings of ownership over green spaces; specifically how those feelings of ownership can develop and drive behavior. 


As students, we are segmenting the design process into small, digestible pieces. In most practical applications, these processes can happen concurrently and are less isolated, but for the sake of learning, we’ve broken the design process down into five clear steps:

IDSE101_themes presentation graphic_vertical_KB 10.2.19


After 16 interviews with 19 participants, we developed 3,031 utterances. To help us make sense of this data, we make it physical. The act of hanging our utterances up on a wall helps in many ways: 

  1. We start to develop a mental map of where things are physically hung in the space. This type of spatial connection cannot happen in a spreadsheet with 3,000 rows. 
  2. The focus is on the idea, not the person. Many of our utterances were hung randomly, rather than organized by participant. As we read through the wall, we start to develop new connections with these utterances that abstract them from the person and allow us to focus on the behavior. 
  3. As we find connections, we physically move an utterance from one side of the room to another, next to other like-minded utterances. We then use this pool of utterances to develop themes. 

The goal is to find emergent patterns among this mass of data that we can ultimately use to derive insights, problem statements, and design ideas. Here’s a sampling of five themes we uncovered as related to us by our interview participants (names and identifying information have been changed):


Park space is public. Austin Parks Foundation doesn’t own it. Park Adopters don’t own it. No one person owns it, yet we observed many actions that may have been appropriate for private spaces, such as someone’s own backyard, but were downright irrational in the context of a public park. 

Madeline told us how ownership can manifest irrationally in Austin community gardens. A large tree that shaded part of the garden was growing even larger. Planning ahead, they realized they would either need to cut limbs off the tree or shift the location of garden plots that soon wouldn’t get enough sunlight. The response from an impacted gardener couldn’t have been more emphatic: “Limb up the tree! I cannot move” (Line 126). She described the attachment of people to their plots saying, “People have a huge sense of ownership because they’ve been cultivating it. I think that’s almost biblical in a way. You’ve been working the soil, there is a lot of energy and ownership that comes out of that” (Line 127).

Another participant, Jim, has spent the last 10 years helping maintain a preserve that is 25 minutes from his house. “For a while, I was coming here every day” (Line 2). He told us he “never goes anywhere without a weeder and a handsaw” (Line 152) — just in case he spots the #1 thing on his “shit list” — an invasive tree, Ligustrum. Although he admits that this battle against the invasive tree is never going to be won, he tirelessly persists in working to restore a more natural balance of native species to this space.

The back of Jim’s car, permanently converted to a mobile toolbox.

Robert lives adjacent to a neighborhood park that has recurring issues with waste left by park users including biohazards like hypodermic needles or condoms. Rather than choosing other places for himself and his family to recreate, he visits his park regularly, often twice a day, and frequently with his son. While we were visiting the park with him, he picked up a needle abandoned in the grass. He’s acutely aware of the risks, telling us, “You don’t know what’s on the other end. One wrong prick and you’re dead…Don’t laugh but I went out and bought welding gloves” (Line 135). Yet he continues to help maintain the park, even getting his son and other neighbors involved. Showing off the results of a recent park clean-up he had organized he told us, “The children are remarkably good [at helping with park clean-ups]. We told them, just don’t touch a needle or a condom. You’ll be fine. Look at this work – it’s great” (Line 80).

Robert heads to the trash with a hypodermic needle.


Despite the city and Austin Park Foundation’s efforts to engage with the community, park-goers regularly expressed a feeling of being forgotten, ignored, and lacking support. Daniel, a lawyer, is concerned about the growth of Austin and the reallocation of funds away from his central neighborhood. “You know, a lot of money it’s been going to this sort of donut around the outskirts of town and trying to get them to spend money in existing parks when there’s new needs and new constituents. It’s always been a competition” (Line 72). He was one of several people who conveyed concern or curiosity about the way that resources were being allocated to parks by the city.


Most of the people we talked to had an awareness of Austin experiencing unprecedented growth. Different people were grappling with the changes in their own ways. Anders, a GIS analyst and East Austin resident, felt growth was positively impacting the parks, but honed in on sustainability and transportation as a problem that Austin was ill-equipped to address as it grows. He blamed newcomers in the suburbs for blocking the spending that needs to happen to improve transportation infrastructure in the city center. “Because the suburbs are only growing…the suburbs are growing faster than everything else and the suburbs are always going to vote against spending on the inner city” (Line 129).

Robert, a long-time Austin resident told us aggressive conflicts between developers and current residents. He explained, “Because we’re sort of in the thick of new development in Austin. Just trying to make sure developers don’t run rampant over the neighbors” (Line 54). He told us about the transition of his neighborhood park from a privately owned parcel to public land. In the process, a developer owned the land, but was stymied by the presence of protected heritage oaks that kept him from being able to convert the lot to a dense residential development. “He tried to poison these trees. Rumor is [company redacted] did it. But that I can’t stand up in court with that. Sprayed it with pesticides to try and kill the trees, then it rained hard, that washed the rain down the hill, and there’s a pond behind you. So it killed off the pond, but saved the trees” (Lines 8-9). While good luck and the right weather kept the developer from getting his way, Robert sees it as the responsibility of Austinites to be proactive in protecting their communities from developers.

The pond that Robert says was poisoned from a developer’s attempt to kill heritage oak trees on this property.

An APF employee admitted that these concerns are commonly expressed to them when they are working on east side park improvements:  “[Eastside residents said] ‘if you do something then it will be nice, and then everybody will want to move here. And then we’ll be priced out.’ I mean, it’s not an irrational fear” (Line 132). Many people we spoke to were acutely aware of decades of unfair treatment of and disregard for existing communities, especially in redlined neighborhoods. These residents are justifiably skeptical about “improvements” happening in their parks.


In pursuing threads connected to feelings of ownership, we talked to many people whose sense of ownership sparked them to take action. Consistently we heard that the experience was cumbersome, slow and opaque. Even Daniel, who had considerable experience navigating local government told us:

“We have folks come out to join us for the meeting, or we’ll send a delegation down, a committee that come and meet with our council members. But, it’s also working your reps, saying you’re unhappy, moaning and groaning. It seems to work, but it’s pretty slow” (Line 99). His naivete about which of his many actions actually produced the intended result  was common, as was the approach of trying as many things as possible in hopes that one will actually be effective. Even at the end of navigating the process, people were still not sure what worked, how they arrived at the final outcome, or why the city or APF supported their vision for the park.

When Bryan was trying to plan a free cycling event in a park, he felt the hurdles were too great and opted out. “The person who was directing it told me about the amount of paperwork he had to fill out just for a free event with no money tied to it in any form or fashion…When he told me what he had to go through I thought, ‘No, sorry, no’” (Line 53). This story was one of many missed opportunities of people who tried to improve the experience of park users, either through physical improvements or community programming but were thwarted by the bureaucratic dimensions of the process. Within the organizational structure of PARD and APF we found even more “black boxes,” processes that were so complex and opaque that employees could not explain them to us and that slowed or undermined their ability to do their jobs.


There were substantially differing opinions about what is acceptable park behavior — and who are acceptable park users. Park users conveyed complicated hierarchies about who belonged using criteria like class, geography, ethnicity, and age. These were often hard to tease out, as people were generally aware of not wanting to make sweeping generalizations about groups of people in front of a live microphone. People were less shy about telling us about behavioral criteria. Behaviors like bike riding, car driving, dog walking, drug use, and drinking, and unauthorized camping had both vocal supporters and detractors.

Daniel told us that he feels his park is being “usurped” by outsiders. “Because of the size of this park, it’s considered a local neighborhood park. It’s not like Zilker, a citywide park. But the people who really love it don’t live here.They tend to be Hispanic. They have grown-up parties in the ballfield, and kid birthday parties down here. Year after year, the same kids come back and have their pinatas.”  (Line 131

He was certain these visitors were not from the neighborhood because his neighbors mostly drive “European cars”, whereas these other park visitors “drive trucks and minivans”. Changes that he was advocating for in the park would reduce parking, and make his park less accessible to people from outside the neighborhood. He said, “I don’t want to be harsh about it, but we pay our taxes. We chose to live here because of the parks. We should have some sort of first dibs on what happens in those parks.” 

Amongst those considering behavioral criteria, by far the most common concerns were about homeless people living in parks. People generally felt strongly about the issue–either in favor of making parks safe and inclusive for all people, especially vulnerable populations like those experiencing homelessness; or convinced that the use of parks by homeless people is incompatible in most or all circumstances with other park use and can’t be prioritized. 

An abandoned camp in one of the parks we visited.

Park Adopter Rico is concerned about their impact: “There are homeless people here and they’re chopping down trees. And I’m like, ‘Heck No!’ The one that was hoarding–remember I told you about all that trash–not only was he hoarding, but he was drug dealing. Zero tolerance when it comes to stuff like that.” (Line 128) He and many others made negative assumptions about the actions of those they perceived to be homeless or poor, with or without evidence, and felt that “normal” park use should take precedence.

On the other end of the spectrum, PARD employee Oliver felt that all are welcome in parks – even homeless park users.“Another thing that I think people really don’t accept on a subconscious level in Austin, is that homeless park users are part of the community of users. There is no right way to enjoy a park.” (Line 137

As Austinites grapple with the issue of homelessness in parks and beyond, many have come to understand homelessness as a state that many are at risk of experiencing, not a lifestyle choice or the natural consequence of poor decision-making. This more nuanced understanding leads to a view that park use can be judged primarily by the impact of the use and in the context of the users’ needs. Parks can meet the needs of housed and unhoused users. The stereotyping of users based on appearances leads to behaviors that make the lives of homeless people even more difficult. Oliver explained compassionate approaches to support those who have nowhere else to stay in ways that honor that person’s humanity and also provide them opportunities to lessen their environmental impact in parks.


These five themes are just a sampling of the patterns we uncovered. We’ll continue to use this data to make sense of our problem space.  Over the next three weeks, we’ll reference the same interviews to help us get a “birds-eye view” of the entire park system to develop service slices. Stay tuned!
Want a deeper look at our interview process and stories from the field? Go here.

Impact Fighter: Who Will be World Savior?

“Humans have an instinctive, natural desire to make life better for their fellows if they can.”

– Muhammad Yunus, Bertrand Moingeon, and Laurence Lehmann-Ortega

I really want to believe this is true — and most days, I do.

As we’ve been diving deep into globalism, poverty, and social business, I’ve been asking myself: what’s the right way to “make like better for our fellows?”

After reading essays like Michael Hobbes’ “Stop Trying to Save The World” and Prahalad’s “Selling to the Poor”, I don’t have one clear answer, but I do have a more informed opinion on effective ways to solve wicked problems. 

To help illustrate the many differing opinions, I created Impact Fighter: the game that seeks to find the World Savior. In this comic about the game, I am the main character trying to “Choose My Fighter” and hopefully be crowned World Savior. Keep in mind: this is a game — so the stakes are high and the rewards are unrealistic. I don’t believe any one person can be the world’s savior, but we can try. 

Choose Your Fighter

Before I can battle it out, I have to choose my fighter. What writer’s powers and methods will I adopt?


7 Go Local Gang 3


Will it be Emily Pilloton and Michael Hobbes: the Go Local Gang? They suggest dreaming smaller and focusing on one community to make an impact, rather than scaling untested ideas to maximize results. I do agree that all too often businesses and celebrities try and help broadly (likely to maximize PR coverage). Ultimately, my character doesn’t choose them as my fighter because after all, I’m trying to gain the title of World Savior.


10 Definition Duo 2


Next, I evaluate Sally Osberg and Victor Margolin: the Definition Duo. Osberg and Margolin fight for a clear definition of entrepreneurship and world models, respectively. While I agree it’s important we have a unified vocabulary when discussing design and globalism, I don’t feel their perspective was actionable enough. 


13 Depleter 2


Then I come across Dean Spears aka the Depleter. Spears is an economist who determined through handgrip squeeze tests that “poverty, by making economic decision-making more difficult for the poor, appears to have depleted cognitive control.” While I think this is interesting distinction to make: people are not poor because they are bad decision-makers; again, it lacked a call-to-action that I am looking for. 


16 The Redefiner 2


Finally, my character comes across Muhammad Yunus aka the Redefiner. Using the Grameen Bank as a primary example, Yunus argues that a social business model could empower capitalism to address global concerns. This resonated with me because he provided clear examples and a sustainable business model that features not only financial but social profit. 


Profiteer 2


With this combination of skills, I choose him as my fighter. To win, I have to fight C.K. Prahalad aka the Profiteer. Prahalad argues that the poor are the largest untapped market in the world and you can empower them by including them in the market. While I think it’s important we empower marginalized populations, I don’t think that the sole reason should be to profit. 

The Redefiner vs The Profiteer

In this fight, the Profiteer throws the first punch by tossing his money bags at The Redefiner in hopes of knocking him down. The Redefiner, however, has the power to funnel money for good and instead absorbs all of the cash into his social business that provides water to undeveloped countries. 


18 Redefiner Counterattack BIG

He continues to reinvest his profits into his business and grows even BIGGER — allowing him to knock out the Profiteer with his high-pressure water supply and be crowned World Savior. 

Crowned World Savior

His model has prevailed, he’s provided water to undeveloped communities, and now he’s mastered the game of Impact Fighter. But before the crown can fall on his head, Jeff Bezos sweeps in and steals it. 


21 Water Bottle Attack

Bezos undercuts the Redefiner’s business model with ultra-cheap water bottles and buries the Redefiner in plastic. The bottles keep coming and coming until Bezos can sit on (or in) his throne of plastic bottles. Bezos wins.

While dramatic for the sake of storytelling, I am concerned that even if we redefine business models, the giants of the world can control the market — knocking any well-intentioned businesses right out. 

What do you think? What fighter would you choose?

See the full comic here.

Exploring Ownership of Park Spaces in Austin

Let me ask you a question: what’s your park? Is it the pocket park at the end of your block? Is it a splash pad that your kids frequent on Saturday mornings? Is it the trail on the edge of town where you recharge from the city? No matter your preference, you’ve likely found your place – – your park that feels like home.

For the past month, we’ve been working with Austin Parks Foundation exploring how Austinites develop this feeling of ownership towards park and more interestingly, how those feelings of ownership affect their actions.

Austin Parks Foundation (APF) is a non-profit dedicated to developing and maintaining outdoor spaces in Austin. For a city with a culture so devoted to fitness and green spaces, Austin parks are surprisingly underfunded. APF attempts to bridge the gap between what park users need and what the city is able to provide through fundraising, volunteering, and events.

Our ultimate goal as designers is to present APF with a new understanding of their stakeholders and identify problem areas that they may not be aware of. To achieve this, we are starting with 30 hours of contextual inquiry, interviews, and activities, with 19 Austinites in the park they call home.

With our focus on ownership, we wanted to find folks that have a strong connection to parks, so we posted on NextDoor, Craigslist, Facebook, asked PARD and APF, and ultimately found participants that fell into 3 groups:

  1. People who have limited access to green spaces and come to parks to commune with nature or do outdoor activities;
  2. People who take action to improve public green spaces; and
  3. People who use public space to participate in organized activities.

We interviewed a forager who uses parks as a source for herbs for medicine, a frisbee coach who uses parks to train his athletes, park adopters who dedicate hours of their week to improving their park, and much more. Below is a peek of five of the 19 stories we uncovered — all names and identifying information have been changed to keep our sources anonymous. 

Meet our park goers



Robert is an artist whose home studio looks out at his neighborhood park. From this vantage point, he has a clear view of the day-to-day activities of park-goers. However, he doesn’t just observe the park from afar, he’s frequently in the park connecting with other park users and just as often out and about in his neighborhood chatting about local issues.

He has collaborated with several local agencies to fund and park improvement projects and has a few more improvements in mind for the future. In several years of living next to his park and advocating for his neighborhood, he’s learned to navigate overlapping civic and non-profit organizations with the help of more experienced mentors.

He told us about his vision for the park. “We planned on cutting through the bamboo to make it a trail for dog walkers and cyclists… You can walk to the side of the pond, but you can’t do a full circle. So we were talking about putting a bridge across and creating a nice path through the trees.”

As we toured his park with him, Robert pointed out areas for potential improvements and also discussed the complications of balancing the needs of neighbors experiencing homelessness who have at times sheltered in the park with the concerns of neighbors who are worried about impacts on the park and the neighborhood.



Madeline moved to Austin 9 years ago and found the core of her community by connecting with others in parks. She joined a local community garden and established friendships through time spent in the gardens and creating other opportunities to come together with events like potlucks. 

“A community garden can be like a microcosm of like everything else going on. You have different political affiliations, you have different genders, all different kinds of people coming together. So it’s a microcosm of your community, which is a good thing.”

Now, Madeline is more likely to spend time in parks with her husband and young son. They visit splash pads and playgrounds or just get some fresh air on an evening walk after work. She’s more likely to schedule time in parks around existing friends and family than to meet new people. 

She still highly values parks and their potential to turn strangers into neighbors and friends. Madeline thinks Austin should invest in parks and gardens as spaces for people from all walks of life to come together, learn from each other and share with each other while reaping the benefits of a healthy lifestyle.



Bryan is a native Austinite who has been planning cyclocross events in Austin parks for seven years. A father of two daughters, he wants his cycling events to be more than just a competition — he wants to create a community where attendees can bring their families, friends, and hang out all day.

“I wanted this to be like a Roman Colosseum. [. . .] Music, announcing, basically everything is right here, just going around you. [. . .] I wanted people to be here, and feel no need to go somewhere else.”

To achieve this, he’s put a lot of effort into his events. From hand-cutting ragweed with a machete to booking food trucks and beer sponsors, he’s 100% hand-on. He’s developed a strong relationship with Travis County Parks, too, something he could not do with Austin Parks & Recreation (PARD).

“It’s very refreshing working with them. Travis County Parks has a ‘can do’ attitude. My partners in the parks […] understand that I’m responsible, that I’m willing to go the extra mile when it needs.”

While Travis County is a great partner, their parks are unfortunately on the outskirts of town. He understands the limits PARD faces, but still wishes that he could plan events that are more central. But for now, he’s counting on Travis County expanding their parks instead of trying to work with PARD.

“I’ve gone the path of least resistance with Austin PARD.” — and for Bryan, that means not working with them at all. 



Wes is a 24-year-old software engineer who resides on Austin’s East Side. His park experiences are focused around playing basketball whenever and wherever he can. He recently started looking at purchasing a house and told us he was scouting out the neighborhood on Google Earth to see what parks would be in walking distance to any new properties. When we asked him to draw us a map of his park ecosystem, it was no surprise that almost all the parks had a basketball court. He adamantly proclaimed

“It’s a staple of an American Park to have a basketball court.”

He plays multiple times a week, sometimes with friends or at pick up games, but also sometimes just to clear his head. In the past, he and his friends would walk 25 minutes in the summer heat to get to a court where they could play a full-court game. This was because the closest court to his then residence was missing a backboard. This isn’t the only issue he has taken up with the facilities around town. At his now local court on the eastside, he told us…

“One issue with this side is the tree is hanging over the court, you can’t really do a fair, full-court game. Like someone’s going to be a disadvantage on that side.”

When we asked him about reaching out to the city to get some of the issues fixed, he said he had thought about it before, but never actually reached out. He was telling us that he would not be opposed to donating to help improve his local park too, but he wasn’t sure if he would ever see the results.

“I really want to know, how can I make a difference? [. . .] Is it really going to make a difference where I want it to? Is that me being selfish by wanting to improve one park that’s close to me versus improving the parks in Austin as a whole? ”



Summer and her partner Jake have been hosting an electric circus in Zilker Park going on their 10th year. They are old school Austinites who embody the “Keep it weird” motto every day. When we were gathering some basic demographic info about them like getting their age, we got the quirky response of

“I’m 14 going on 52.” from Jake, and “I’m 736, but in this life.” from Summer.

They are both really proud of the community that they have built through their park festival which showcases people experimenting with flow arts, like hoola-hoops and rolla-bollas, where the tagline of the party is where you are the star

“That’s how you get to grow the community. You show it to new people. Basically the park is an audience. They don’t know they are the audience, they don’t know they are going to be the participants either.”

They love to share their experiences with anyone who is interested, and use the festival as an opportunity to lead by example. They do a roll call before dusk to get all festival-goers to clean up the site so they can leave the park better than they found it. They also like to leave an emotional imprint on people as well. At another public festival called  The Fairy Trail, Summer told us a story about a mom and her daughter had been coming to see her for multiple years in a row. The little girl came up to Summer and wanted to thank her for giving her fairy blessings every year, so the girl said it was her turn to give Summer a blessing.

“I knelt down there and the little girl gave me a blessing and blew glitter on me and I started crying. It was the cutest thing ever.”

Next Steps

With our research wrapped, we are now focused on finding themes among our participants. With a desire to design with — and not for — our participants, we invited a few into the studio to help us interpret our research. Stay tuned in two weeks as we present our findings.

Considering Time When Designing With or Designing For

AC4D is a ‘practice what you preach’ program — if you haven’t already figured that out. This week, we are knee-deep in design research for our clients, so of course, we are also discussing ethical research methods and the power of designing with– not for– our users.

For me, these readings felt really serendipitous (though I’m sure they are meticulously planned). As we grappled with the implications of interviewing folks suffering from homelessness, our first reading by La Dantec explored the same issue and showed us what a thoughtful, ethical research approach looks like. He also inspired us to avoid ‘cultural safari’ territory, and ultimately, we decided against seeking homeless participants.

As we wrap up our interview phase, these readings also helped me think about what it truly means designing for versus designing with users.

What does it mean to design with?

Our most provocative reading was by Donald Norman, the writer of Psychology of Everyday Things and an advocate for ‘just-noticeable differences’.  He asserts that design research cannot be used to make innovative changes — only inventors can do that. Design research, he argues, is most effective when used for incremental change.

Because this is seen as such a controversial statement, this helped me to understand one key thing: we are moving towards a trend of designers and companies thinking the gold-standard is to design with their users. But it seems they rarely do because inventors, egos, market research, and/or budgets stand in the way. 

As we’ve learned from Kolko, design research is an investment– in time, money, and resources. It’s an investment in understanding nuance and culture, and leads you towards more creative, future-thinking ideas. His approach feels rooted in long-term strategy — in contrast to Norman who seeks to only use design research to make better buttons. So with Kolko in one corner, and Norman in the opposite — we start to see quadrants emerge:

Assignment 2 Laura Carroll

Designing for short term vs long term

Designing for the short term is purposefully vague here — I applied it to mean either small iterations (like Norman suggests), design intended to please quarterly earnings reports, and design that seeks to capitalize on fast trends.  To me, designing for the short term tends to be motivated by profits.

On the other end of the spectrum is designing for the long term — cultural shifts, social changes, and slow-moving endeavors.  In general, I assume that if you are designing for the long term, you (hopefully) have more time to integrate true collaborative research. The short-term, however, changes so quickly that collaborative research in all processes may prove to be inefficient or too expensive. 

Le Dantec, Kolko, and Sanders all discuss highly-collaborative — and rigorous methods — that both strive for social impact and intimately involve the end-user. 

Gaver and Forlizzi, on the other hand, involve users less. Gaver, as an artist-researcher, leaves a lot of interpretation in the designer’s hand but does seek to understand key cultural insights. Forlizzi seeks to build methods that give power to the designer to look at the effect of products over time — which is why she lands closer to the “long-term” strategy point. 

Norman, as we’ve already discussed, only recommends design research for iterations. Fulton Suri, on the other hand, as a business leader at frog falls more towards the middle — choosing research methodologies for the projects at hand. 

And finally, we have Dourish in a corner alone. His complex focus on context could be applied for both short and long-term, but I placed him more towards the short term because context is ever-changing. He most definitely seeks to involve the end-user, because only they can truly understand their own context.

As I was trying to “brand” each quadrant, I wrote out short sayings (like ‘we’re better together’) that ultimately reminded me of presidential slogans. So, for some fun extra context, here are the quadrants explained with presidential slogans throughout history. 

Bush Corner 2

For reference, here’s the full list of readings: 

  • Designs on Dignity by Christopher A. Le Dantec, W. Keith Edwards
  • A Tale of Two Publics  by Christopher A. Le Dantec
  • What we talk about when we talk about context by Paul Dourish
  • The Product Ecology by Jodi Forlizzi
  • Cultural Probes and the Value of Uncertainty by William Gaver
  • The Value of Synthesis in Driving Innovation by Jon Kolko
  • Technology First, Needs Last by Don Norman
  • A Social Vision for Value Co-creation in Design by Liz Sanders and George Simons
  • Going Deeper, Seeing Further by Jane Fulton Suri and Suzanne Gibbs Howard
  • Experience Prototyping by Jane Fulton Suri and Marion Buchenau

Judging Ethics and Responsibility in Design

Over the past two weeks, we have been tasked with reading five prominent writers’ perspectives on design:

  1. Edward Bernay’s “Manipulating Public Opinion: The Why and the How” (1928)
  2. John Dewey’s “The Need of a Theory of Experience” (1938)
  3. Victor Papanek’s “Design for the Real World” (1970) and “Creativity vs. Conformity” (1971)
  4. Maurizio Vitta’s “The Meaning of Design” (1985)
  5. Neil Postman’s speech “Informing Ourselves to Death” (1990)

As any good theory should, these writings have truly withstood the test of time. Arguably the most relevant for today was the oldest — Bernay’s piece on propaganda. 

Our ultimate goal with these readings is to identify how each writer views the role of design in society, and then determine which is the least or most important. Before diving deeper, I felt the need to define a) “what is design?” and b) “what does it mean to be important?”.

What is design?

For the purposes of this assignment, I found myself attracted to Papenek’s broader definition of design that focuses on pattern finding and themes, rather than products or consumables. Papanek defines design as “the planning and patterning of any act toward a desired, foreseeable end…” (Victor Papanek. Design for the Real World, 1971). 

What does it mean to be important? 

Rather than focusing on how each writer views the importance of design in society, I wanted to develop my own perspective. Which writer’s principles do I want to hold top-of-mind (most important) as we embark on this challenging mission to become designers? Through which writer’s lens can I start to draft my own opinions? What should drive me as a designer?

From this point of view, I plotted each writer from least important to most important. With the top writers being the ones I want to keep in my ear (cheering me on or scolding me) as we interview users, come up with ideas, and become true designers. 

At the bottom is Bernays. While I think he’s deeply important to read and understand, he views the public as holding all the power which dissolves designers of their responsibility. Although a nice sentiment, power is not equal and we need to be conscious of inequities when designing. 

Vitta again does not take enough responsibility for what designers create. I wholeheartedly agree that individuals are overwhelmed with goods and the act of consumption is really a process of communication. But ultimately, he lacked a call-to-action that I want to drive me as a young designer. 

Postman and Papanek, on the other hand, have equally urgent pleas for the public to break free of the patterns and distractions that bind us and focus on what truly matters: bettering humanity. Society is broken, and rather than “creating” using worn-out traditions or researching more information for information’s sake, we should use design as a powerful way to enact meaningful change. 

Dewey ultimately builds on all of this by saying not only should designers consider ethics and what’s best for humanity, but we should also create experiences that are unique and foster growth.

These readings have already provided an interesting reflection into the goals of AC4D; some are radical, provocative ways to think about design — a seeming core tenant of the school. I chose AC4D for a reason — a huge part being ethics and social impact — and I’m happy to see that both are incorporated in every step from the start. 

As I’ve heard a lot over the past two weeks, we get a major mulligan as students, so we should experiment and use it to our advantage. With the freedom to flex and get weird, I got hope to keep these principles top-of-mind so I don’t accidentally flex in the “wrong” way.

Personal Reflection: The Highs and Lows of AC4D Bootcamp

Our 3-day bootcamp just wrapped, and I’m invigorated, excited — and exhausted. We condensed big ideas we’ll use throughout the entire program into three days: user interviews, theme finding, insight development, ideation, sketching, and presenting. 

I’m not exhausted for obvious reasons: our days weren’t long, we didn’t have reading homework, and most of our tasks were fun. I’m tired because this week forced me to stay present, get uncomfortable, and challenge my “normal” thinking patterns.

Stress Graph - Week 1

My “anxiety graph” this week

Normal first-day jitters were high, but I quickly calmed down when Ruby reminded us why we are here: to make things, build empathy, and trust our intuition — the three pedagogical tenants of AC4D.

So what did I learn?

I need to think bigger. After working in corporate environments for the last six years, I’ve taught myself to value feasibility, profitability, and efficiency above all else. 

Our bootcamp was centered around exploring challenges specific to food trucks. We cold-intercepted users, transcribed interviews (something I thankfully have experience with!), created utterances, found themes, and then the hard part began: creating provocative insights. 

My first  “provocative statement” was “food truck owners should prioritize making SoPs to avoid serious issues”. Not so provocative, right?

After some nudging from Jon and a lot of discussion, we landed on:

“Food truck owners resist delegating responsibilities in a highly transient workforce for fear of operational breakdown. Management should be non-hierarchical and compensate all workers equally.”

Is it feasible? Is it profitable? Is it efficient? We don’t know, but it definitely inspired us. 

Then came the hardest part of the week: ideating three hundred ideas from this one insight. 


We got our first flood of ideas out quickly. Then we had to challenge ourselves: is it a product, service, policy, environment, or system? How, where, what, who, when, or why? 

We recommended a lot of accidental big-brother, socialist, capitalist, ethically questionable, idealist, and random ideas. Then came sorting. 

To find our “best” ideas, we used three criteria:

  1. Impact: Does this impact the people we are trying to serve?
  2. Feasible: Could this exist – on earth?
  3. Mission: Does this reflect our “should” statement?

Through sorting, we stack-ranked 15 ideas, and then sketched out five. As someone with limited sketch experience, I struggled to not constantly critique myself. (How do people draw hands really?) Luckily, we were constantly reminded to not judge ourselves. 

Then we listened to our classmates’ concepts, shared our sketches, and from there — we could relax. The rest of the afternoon we spent learning Sketch, which has been a breeze (so far). I’m sure I’ll struggle more once I move beyond circles and rectangles.

Ultimately, I feel really excited for the months ahead. And I hope to fulfill AC4D’s promise of autonomy — and never feeling stuck again.